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Table 1 Baseline demographic data for monolingual and bilingual groups

From: Bilingualism in older Mexican-American immigrants is associated with higher scores on cognitive screening

  Monolingual Bilingual t/χ2
N 289 339
Age 73.6 (6.9) 74.3 (6.7) −1.33
Gender (% male) 35.9% 48.6% 10.25*
Years of Education 2.2 (2.7) 6.3 (4.6) −13.54*
CES-D scorea 13.6 (11.2) 9.7 (10.3) 4.40*
Monthly Household Incomeb χ2(4,610) = 82.24*
 <$1000 78.0% 43.5%  
 $1000–$1499 14.8% 30.3%
 $1500–$1999 5.4% 11.7%
 $2000–$2499 1.8% 6.6%
 ≥$2500 0.0% 7.8%
  1. Parentheses represent standard deviation. *p < 0.05. aBaseline CES-D data was missing for 15 monolingual and 17 bilingual participants. bBaseline monthly household income data was missing for 12 monolingual and 6 bilingual participants