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Table 3 Association between benzodiazepine use and sleep quality, day-time drowsiness and napping in Australian residential aged care facilities

From: The association between benzodiazepine use and sleep quality in residential aged care facilities: a cross-sectional study

   Association between BZD and higher night-time sleep quality Association between BZD and day-time drowsiness Association between BZD and longer average napping time (≥3.5 h per week)
  N AORa CI P AORa CI P AORa CI P
Any BZD 179 0.82 0.53 – 1.26 0.36 1.27 0.81 – 1.98 0.30 1.04 0.65 – 1.66 0.87
Any Regular
 - short-acting 83 0.91 0.54 – 1.53 0.71 1.05 0.62 – 1.80 0.85 0.70 0.40 – 1.22 0.21
 - long-acting 14 4.00 1.06 – 15.15 0.04 1.53 0.48 – 4.90 0.48 0.32 0.07 – 1.50 0.15
PRN only
 - short-acting 69 0.59 0.34 – 1.02 0.06 1.29 0.73 – 2.26 0.38 1.77 1.01 – 3.08 0.04
 - long-acting 11 0.77 0.22 – 2.67 0.68 1.29 0.37 – 4.46 0.69 1.18 0.30 – 4.70 0.81
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI 95% confidence interval, BZD benzodiazepine
  2. aeach model adjusted for age, sex, DSRS (Dementia Severity Rating Scale), PAINAD (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale), depression, insomnia and use of non-benzodiazepine sedatives