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Table 1 Applicability of the existing tools for the assessment of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in research and clinical settings

From: Sarcopenia in daily practice: assessment and management

  Applicable in research settings Applicable in specialist clinical settings Applicable in primary care settings
Assessment of muscle mass
DXA +++ +++ +
Anthropometric measurements + ++ ++
CT-scan +++ ++ +
MRI +++ ++ +
BIA ++ ++ +
Assessment of muscle strength
Handgrip strength +++ +++ +++
Lower limb muscle strength +++ ++ +
Repeated chair stands test + + ++
Assessment of physical performance
Gait speed +++ +++ +++
Timed Up and Go test ++ + +
Balance test + + +
6-min walk test ++ + +
400 m walk test ++ + +
Stair climb test ++ + +
SPPB test +++ ++ +
  1. SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery
  2. Nb. The group has chosen to attribute to each tool +++ (best recommended tool) or ++ (best alternative tool) or + (less recommended tool) based on the availability and the costs of the tool, the required time for the examination and the availability of robust cut-off points