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Table 1 Description of studies’ characteristics

From: Influence of combined physical and cognitive training on cognition: a systematic review

Study Design Participants
Total sample (Male/Female) Intervention group n (mean age ± SD) Comparison and control groups n (mean age ± SD) Health condition Recruitment Education
Simultaneous Intervention (Dual Task)
Choi et al., 2015 [37] RCT N = 21 Analysed n = 20 (12/8) I-DT: n = 10 (64.8 ± 10.5 years.) SPT: n = 10 (54.6 ± 11.8 years.) S Hospital N.I.
Coelho et al., 2013 [38] CT N = 27 (N. I.) I-DT: n = 14 (78.0 ± 7.3 years.) NA-C: n = 13 (77.1 ± 7.4 years.) AD Community I-DT: 5.8 ± 3.8 years. NA-C: 3.7 ± 2.3 years.
De Andrade et al., 2013 [39] CT N = 30 (6/24) I-DT: n = 14 (78.6 ± 7.1 year.) NA-C: n = 16 (77.0 ± 6.3 years.) AD Community I-DT: 5.1 ± 2.9 years. NA-C: 3.9 ± 2.5 years.
Evans et al., 2009 [34] RCT N = 19 (17/2) I-DT: n = 10 (44.4 ± 8.5 years.) NA-C: n = 9 (45.1 ± 9.7 years.) C N.I. N.I.
Hars et al., 2013 [42] RCT N = 134 (5/129) I-DT: n = 66 (75.0 ± 8.0 year.) NA-C: n = 68 (76.0 ± 6.0 year.) H Community Total N: Prim. School: 14.9 % Middle school: 67.2 % High school: 17.9 %
Hiyamizu et al., 2012 [43] RCT N = 43 Analysed N = 36 (10/26) I-DT: n = 17 (72.0 ± 5.1 year.) SPT: n = 19 (71.2 ± 4.4 years.) H Community N.I.
Kayama et al., 2014 [44] CT N = 48 (N.I.) Analysed n = 41 I-DT: n = 26 (N.I.) SPT: n = 15 (N.I.) H Community N.I.
Marmeleira et al., 2009 [45] RCT N = 32 (25/7) I-DT: n = 16 (68.2 ± 6.5 years.) NA-C: n = 16 (68.4 ± 6.7 years.) H Community I-DT: 4.8 ± 3.1 year. NA-C: 5.1 ± 2.2 years.
Plummer-D’Amato et al., 2012 [41] Pilot RCT N = 17 (1/16) I-DT: n = 10 (76.6 ± 5.6 years.) SPT: n = 7 (76.7 ± 6.0 year.) H Local senior centre I-DT: 12.6 ± 2.5 years. STG: 12.9 ± 2.3 years.
Schwenk et al., 2010 [35] RCT N = 61 (22/39) Analysed N = 49 I-DT: n = 26 (80.4 ± 7.1 year.) A-C: n = 35 (82.3 ± 7.9 years.) D Hospital I-DT: median 11 year. A-C: median 11 year.
Theill et al., 2013 [46] CT N = 63 (17/46a) Analysed N = 51 I-DT: n = 18 (72.4 ± 4.2 years.) SCT: n = 12 (73.3 ± 6.1 year.) NA-C: n = 21 (70.9 ± 4.8 years.) H Community and participant pool of the University of Zurich I-DT: 13.8 ± 3.0 year. SCT: 14.9 ± 4.9 years. NA-C: 13.2 ± 2.9 years.
Yokoyama et al., 2015 [47] RCT N = 27 Analysed N = 25 (2/23) I-DT: n = 12 (74.2 ± 4.3 years.) SPT: n = 13 (74.2 ± 3.4 years.) H Community I-DT: 11.9 ± 1.7 years. STG: 12.0 ± 1.8 years.
You et al., 2009 [40] RCT N = 13 (2/11) I-DT: n = 8 (70.5 ± 6.8 years.) A-C: n = 5 (68.0 ± 3.3 years.) H Local community centres N.I.
Subsequent Intervention
Barnes et al., 2013 [36] RCT N = 126 (47/79) I-S: n = 32 (74.8 ± 6.1 year.) SCT: n = 31 (73.8 ± 5.7 years.) SPT: n = 31 (71.1 ± 5.5 years.) A-C: n = 32 (73.9 ± 6.3 years.) C Community I-S: 16.7 ± 2.2 years. SCT: 16.8 ± 2.3 years. SPT: 15.6 ± 2.8 years. A-C: 16.3 ± 2.1 year.
De Bruin et al., 2013 [48] RCT N = 16 (5/11) Analysed N = 13 (5/8) I-S: n = 6 (79.8 ± 6.8 years.) SPT: n = 7 (75.0 ± 8.3 years.) H Assisted living facility N.I.
Fabre et al., 2002 [49] RCT N = 32 (5/27) I-S: n = 8 (64.9 ± 1.4 years.) SCT: n = 8 (67.5 ± 1.2 years.) SPT: n = 8 (65.4 ± 2.2 years.) A-C: n = 8 (65.7 ± 1.5 years.) H Clubs I-S: 12.1 ± 1.2 years. SCT: 12.7 ± 1.2 years. SPT: 11.2 ± 1.3 years. A-C: 12.1 ± 1.4 years.
Legault et al., 2011 [50] RCT N = 73 (36/37) I-S: n = 19 (76.9 ± 4.0 year.) SCT: n = 18 (76.0 ± 5.2 years.) SPT: n = 18 (77.5 ± 4.8 years.) A-C = 18 (75.4 ± 4.8 years.) H Community Higher than High School I-S: 68 % SCT: 78 % SPT: 83 % A-C: 72 %
Oswald et al., 2006 [33] CT N = 375 (132/243), Age: 75–93 (79.5 ± 3.5) Analysed N = 179a at a five-year follow-up I-S: n = 32, n = 17a SCT: n = 57, n = 29a SPT: n = 32, n = 15a SPT + PE: n = 36, n = 18a PE: n = 115, n = 47a NA-C: n = 103, n = 53a H Community Total N: Prim. School: 41.1 % Sec. school: 39.2 % “Abitur”: 14.4 % University: 5.3 %
Shatil, 2013 [51] RCT N = 122 (38/84) I-S: n = 29 (79 ± 5.5 years.) SCT: n = 33 (80 ± 5.4 years.) SPT: n = 31 (79 ± 5.8 years.) A-C: n = 29 (81 ± 5.3 years.) H Retirement village Total N: 15.7 ± 2.43 years.
Van het Reve et al., 2014 [52] RCT N = 182 Analysed N = 156 (55/101) I-S: n = 74 (81.1 ± 8.3 years.) SPT: n = 82 (81.9 ± 6.3 years.) H Community and Local senior centre Total N: University/College:7.1 % Vocational Education: 59.6 % No education: 26.3 %
  1. N total number of study sample, n number of group participants, yrs. years of age, SD standard deviation, RCT randomised controlled trial, CT controlled trial, I-DT simultaneous physical and cognitive training Intervention (Dual Task) group, I-S subsequent physical and cognitive training Intervention group, SCT single cognitive training, SPT single physical training, PE psycho-educational training, A-C active control, NA-C non-active Control, H healthy/ cognitively healthy, C cognitive complaints/ mild impairment, S subacute stroke, D dementia; AD Alzheimer’s Disease, N. I. no Information available
  2. aRemaining participants after exclusion of drop-outs, no information about their gender ratio