From: Influence of combined physical and cognitive training on cognition: a systematic review
Study | Design | Participants | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Total sample (Male/Female) | Intervention group n (mean age ± SD) | Comparison and control groups n (mean age ± SD) | Health condition | Recruitment | Education | ||
Simultaneous Intervention (Dual Task) | |||||||
Choi et al., 2015 [37] | RCT | N = 21 Analysed n = 20 (12/8) | I-DT: n = 10 (64.8 ± 10.5 years.) | SPT: n = 10 (54.6 ± 11.8 years.) | S | Hospital | N.I. |
Coelho et al., 2013 [38] | CT | N = 27 (N. I.) | I-DT: n = 14 (78.0 ± 7.3 years.) | NA-C: n = 13 (77.1 ± 7.4 years.) | AD | Community | I-DT: 5.8 ± 3.8 years. NA-C: 3.7 ± 2.3 years. |
De Andrade et al., 2013 [39] | CT | N = 30 (6/24) | I-DT: n = 14 (78.6 ± 7.1 year.) | NA-C: n = 16 (77.0 ± 6.3 years.) | AD | Community | I-DT: 5.1 ± 2.9 years. NA-C: 3.9 ± 2.5 years. |
Evans et al., 2009 [34] | RCT | N = 19 (17/2) | I-DT: n = 10 (44.4 ± 8.5 years.) | NA-C: n = 9 (45.1 ± 9.7 years.) | C | N.I. | N.I. |
Hars et al., 2013 [42] | RCT | N = 134 (5/129) | I-DT: n = 66 (75.0 ± 8.0 year.) | NA-C: n = 68 (76.0 ± 6.0 year.) | H | Community | Total N: Prim. School: 14.9 % Middle school: 67.2 % High school: 17.9 % |
Hiyamizu et al., 2012 [43] | RCT | N = 43 Analysed N = 36 (10/26) | I-DT: n = 17 (72.0 ± 5.1 year.) | SPT: n = 19 (71.2 ± 4.4 years.) | H | Community | N.I. |
Kayama et al., 2014 [44] | CT | N = 48 (N.I.) Analysed n = 41 | I-DT: n = 26 (N.I.) | SPT: n = 15 (N.I.) | H | Community | N.I. |
Marmeleira et al., 2009 [45] | RCT | N = 32 (25/7) | I-DT: n = 16 (68.2 ± 6.5 years.) | NA-C: n = 16 (68.4 ± 6.7 years.) | H | Community | I-DT: 4.8 ± 3.1 year. NA-C: 5.1 ± 2.2 years. |
Plummer-D’Amato et al., 2012 [41] | Pilot RCT | N = 17 (1/16) | I-DT: n = 10 (76.6 ± 5.6 years.) | SPT: n = 7 (76.7 ± 6.0 year.) | H | Local senior centre | I-DT: 12.6 ± 2.5 years. STG: 12.9 ± 2.3 years. |
Schwenk et al., 2010 [35] | RCT | N = 61 (22/39) Analysed N = 49 | I-DT: n = 26 (80.4 ± 7.1 year.) | A-C: n = 35 (82.3 ± 7.9 years.) | D | Hospital | I-DT: median 11 year. A-C: median 11 year. |
Theill et al., 2013 [46] | CT | N = 63 (17/46^{a}) Analysed N = 51 | I-DT: n = 18 (72.4 ± 4.2 years.) | SCT: n = 12 (73.3 ± 6.1 year.) NA-C: n = 21 (70.9 ± 4.8 years.) | H | Community and participant pool of the University of Zurich | I-DT: 13.8 ± 3.0 year. SCT: 14.9 ± 4.9 years. NA-C: 13.2 ± 2.9 years. |
Yokoyama et al., 2015 [47] | RCT | N = 27 Analysed N = 25 (2/23) | I-DT: n = 12 (74.2 ± 4.3 years.) | SPT: n = 13 (74.2 ± 3.4 years.) | H | Community | I-DT: 11.9 ± 1.7 years. STG: 12.0 ± 1.8 years. |
You et al., 2009 [40] | RCT | N = 13 (2/11) | I-DT: n = 8 (70.5 ± 6.8 years.) | A-C: n = 5 (68.0 ± 3.3 years.) | H | Local community centres | N.I. |
Subsequent Intervention | |||||||
Barnes et al., 2013 [36] | RCT | N = 126 (47/79) | I-S: n = 32 (74.8 ± 6.1 year.) | SCT: n = 31 (73.8 ± 5.7 years.) SPT: n = 31 (71.1 ± 5.5 years.) A-C: n = 32 (73.9 ± 6.3 years.) | C | Community | I-S: 16.7 ± 2.2 years. SCT: 16.8 ± 2.3 years. SPT: 15.6 ± 2.8 years. A-C: 16.3 ± 2.1 year. |
De Bruin et al., 2013 [48] | RCT | N = 16 (5/11) Analysed N = 13 (5/8) | I-S: n = 6 (79.8 ± 6.8 years.) | SPT: n = 7 (75.0 ± 8.3 years.) | H | Assisted living facility | N.I. |
Fabre et al., 2002 [49] | RCT | N = 32 (5/27) | I-S: n = 8 (64.9 ± 1.4 years.) | SCT: n = 8 (67.5 ± 1.2 years.) SPT: n = 8 (65.4 ± 2.2 years.) A-C: n = 8 (65.7 ± 1.5 years.) | H | Clubs | I-S: 12.1 ± 1.2 years. SCT: 12.7 ± 1.2 years. SPT: 11.2 ± 1.3 years. A-C: 12.1 ± 1.4 years. |
Legault et al., 2011 [50] | RCT | N = 73 (36/37) | I-S: n = 19 (76.9 ± 4.0 year.) | SCT: n = 18 (76.0 ± 5.2 years.) SPT: n = 18 (77.5 ± 4.8 years.) A-C = 18 (75.4 ± 4.8 years.) | H | Community | Higher than High School I-S: 68 % SCT: 78 % SPT: 83 % A-C: 72 % |
Oswald et al., 2006 [33] | CT | N = 375 (132/243), Age: 75–93 (79.5 ± 3.5) Analysed N = 179^{a} at a five-year follow-up | I-S: n = 32, n = 17^{a} | SCT: n = 57, n = 29^{a} SPT: n = 32, n = 15^{a} SPT + PE: n = 36, n = 18^{a} PE: n = 115, n = 47^{a} NA-C: n = 103, n = 53^{a} | H | Community | Total N: Prim. School: 41.1 % Sec. school: 39.2 % “Abitur”: 14.4 % University: 5.3 % |
Shatil, 2013 [51] | RCT | N = 122 (38/84) | I-S: n = 29 (79 ± 5.5 years.) | SCT: n = 33 (80 ± 5.4 years.) SPT: n = 31 (79 ± 5.8 years.) A-C: n = 29 (81 ± 5.3 years.) | H | Retirement village | Total N: 15.7 ± 2.43 years. |
Van het Reve et al., 2014 [52] | RCT | N = 182 Analysed N = 156 (55/101) | I-S: n = 74 (81.1 ± 8.3 years.) | SPT: n = 82 (81.9 ± 6.3 years.) | H | Community and Local senior centre | Total N: University/College:7.1 % Vocational Education: 59.6 % No education: 26.3 % |