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Table 3 Health outcomes as a function of caregiver status across propensity-matched groups

From: Impact of caring for persons with Alzheimer’s disease or dementia on caregivers’ health outcomes: findings from a community based survey in Japan

  Non-caregivers (n = 1297) Caregivers (n = 1297) Total (n = 2594)
Mean/% SD/n Mean/% SD/n Mean/% SD/n
PHQ-9 3.09 4.68 4.39* 5.47 3.74 5.13
PHQ-9: category PHQ-9: < 10 91.4 % 1185 85.8 % 1113* 90.9 % 2298
PHQ-9: ≥ 10 (MDD) 8.6 % 112 14.2 % 184* 9.1 % 296
Diagnosed comorbidities       
  Depression 3.2 % 42 6.2 % 80* 3.4 % 122
  Insomnia 5.7 % 74 9.8 % 127* 4.5 % 201
  Anxiety 0.4 % 5 1.9 % 25* 0.9 % 30
  Hypertension 17.3 % 225 17.4 % 226 11.8 % 451
  Pain 10.6 % 138 15.5 % 201* 8.1 % 339
  Diabetes (Type 1/2) 7.9 % 103 6.1 % 79 3.7 % 182
SF-6D 0.764 0.123 0.724* 0.124 0.744 0.125
SF-36v2: Physical Component Summary 52.73 6.71 51.60* 6.61 52.17 6.69
SF-36v2: Mental Component Summary 48.60 9.52 46.00* 10.65 47.30 10.18
WPAI: % absenteeism: work missed due to healtha 3.08 12.30 5.40* 15.81 4.25 14.23
WPAI: % presenteeism-related impairment: impairment while working due to healtha 18.44 23.83 22.74* 25.39 20.62 24.72
WPAI: % overall work impairmenta 20.36 25.66 25.75* 28.18 23.09 27.09
WPAI: % activity impairment 21.79 25.37 25.41* 25.82 23.60 25.66
Emergency room visits, past 6 months 0.08 0.56 0.27* 1.68 0.18 1.26
Hospitalizations, past 6 months 0.81 6.72 0.79 5.15 0.80 5.99
Traditional healthcare provider visits, past 6 months 5.35 8.59 7.70* 18.50 6.53 14.47
Emergency room visits (1+), past 6 months 4.0 % 52 7.2 % 94* 3.3 % 146
Hospitalizations (1+), past 6 months 5.1 % 66 8.1 % 105* 4.1 % 171
Traditional healthcare provider visits (1+), past 6 months 61.9 % 803 74.9 % 971* 57.0 % 1774
  1. Caregivers were defined as those currently caring for an adult relative with Alzheimer’s disease or dementia, whereas non-caregivers were those not currently caring for an adult relative with any listed condition
  2. MDD major depressive disorder, PHQ patient health questionnaire, SD standard deviation, SF short form, WPAI work productivity and activity impairment
  3. *p < 0.05 for the two-tailed significance of differences across caregivers and non-caregivers within a given row
  4. aAbsenteeism and overall work impairment results were available only for employed respondents, excluding those who both worked and missed 0 h, as well as outliers who reported > 112 potential work hours in the past week (n = 1364: 691 caregivers and 673 non-caregivers). Presenteeism-related impairment results were available only for employed respondents who worked > 0 h in the past week (n = 1397: 709 caregivers and 688 non-caregivers)