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Table 1 Health characteristics of older adults in the Crystal study, according to the age group

From: Do commonly used frailty models predict mortality, loss of autonomy and mental decline in older adults in northwestern Russia? A prospective cohort study

  65–74 years old (n = 305) 75 years and older (n = 306)
Sex   
 Male, n (%) 100 (32.8) 73 (23.9)
Age (years), median, [IQR] 70 [68–72] 79 [77–83]
BMI (kg/m2) mean, ±SD 29.1 ± 4.9 28.1 ± 4.9
Comorbidities   
 Coronary artery disease, n (%) 228 (74.8) 256 (83.7)
  Myocardial infarction, n (%) 37 (12.1) 40 (13.1)
  Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 97 (31.8) 87 (28.4)
  Stroke, n (%) 37 (12.1) 54 (17.6)
  Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 49 (16.1) 38 (12.4)
  COPD, n (%) 71 (21.3) 77 (23.2)
  Asthma, n (%) 10 (3.3) 17 (5.6)
  Peripheral arterial disease, n (%) 69 (22.6) 67 (21.9)
  Osteoarthritis or arthritis (%) 7 (2.3) 17 (5.6)
  Cancer, n (%) 11 (3.6) 11 (3.6)
  Parkinson’s, n (%) 2 (0.7) 5 (1.6)
  Renal pathology, n (%) 21 (6.9) 10 (3.3)
  Vision impairment, n (%) 99 (32.5) 128 (41.8)
  Hearing impairment, n (%) 61 (20.1) 101 (33.0)
  Incontinence, n (%) 104 (34.1) 146 (47.7)
SPPB score, median, [IQR] 10 [7–12] 7 [5–10]
Grip strength, median, [IQR]   
 Males 29.2 [24.1–33.1] 22.5 [16.9–28.4]
 Females 16.0 [12.3–19.3] 12.3 [9.3–16.3]
Barthel Index < 95, n (%) 44 (14.4) 101 (33.0)
GDS-15 score > 5, n (%) 79 (25.1) 130 (42.5)
MMSE score, n (%)   
 0–9 1 (0.3) 7 (2.3)
 10–20 20 (6.6) 58 (19.0)
 21–24 40 (13.1) 85 (27.8)
 25–30 244 (80) 156 (51.0)
SOC score, mean ± SD 63.9 ± 9.7 64.2 ± 11.6
FEV1, L, mean ± SD 2.2 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.6
Frailty status according to Puts model   
 Robust, n (%) 65 (22.0) 17 (5.7)
 Pre–frail, n (%) 117 (39.5) 98 (33.1)
 Frail, n (%) 114 (38.5) 181 (61.1)
Frailty status according to Fried model   
 Robust, n (%) 55 (18.3) 36 (12.2)
 Pre–frail, n (%) 196 (65.1) 175 (59.1)
 Frail, n (%) 50 (16.6) 85 (28.7)
Frailty status according to Steverink-Slaets model   
 Robust, n (%) 168 (55.4) 90 (29.4)
 Pre–frail, n (%) 62 (20.5) 88 (29.0)
 Frail, n (%) 73 (24.1) 125 (40.8)
  1. BMI body mass index, GDS15 geriatric depression scale 15 items, MMSE mini mental status examination, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, SOC sense of coherence scale