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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of a representative sample of Lebanese older adults (n = 525)a

From: A Lebanese dietary pattern promotes better diet quality among older adults: findings from a national cross-sectional study

  Total (n = 525)
Demographic characteristics  
Age (yrs) Mean ± SD 66.4 ± 7.89
 50 + −64.9 263 (50.1)
  ≥ 65 262 (49.9)
Sex  
 Male 268 (51)
 Female 257 (49)
Education  
 Illiterate 65 (12.4)
 Less than high school 204 (38.9 %)
 High school or Diploma 190 (36.2 %)
 University level 66 (12.6)
Marital status  
 Married 354 (67.4)
 Single/Divorced/Separated/Widowed 171 (32.6)
Crowding index  
  < 1 person/room 297 (57)
  ≥ 1 person/room 224 (43)
Lifestyle characteristics  
Physical activity  
 Low intensity (less than 600 METs) 237 (45.5)
 Moderate intensity (at least 600 METs) 191 (36.7)
 High intensity (at least 3000 METs) 93 (17.9)
Smoking  
 Never/Past smoker 319 (60.8)
 Current smoker 206 (39.2)
Alcohol intake  
 No alcohol 304 (57.9)
 Occasionally 135 (25.7)
 1–4 times per week 54 (10.3)
 5 or more per week 32 (6.1)
Presence of chronic disease b 422 (80.4)
Family history of chronic diseasesc  
 No 95 (18.1)
 Yes 429 (81.7)
Anthropometric measurements  
Weight (kg) 76.42 ± 14.97
Height (cm) 161.61 ± 9.45
BMI (kg/m2) (Mean ± SD) 29.29 ± 5.48
BMI classification  
 Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2) 8 (1.5)
 Normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25 kg/m2) 91 (17.3)
 Overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2) 213 (40.6)
 Obese (≥30 kg/m2) 213 (40.6)
Waist circumference (cm) d (Mean ± SD) 98.47 ± 13.21
 Normal (Females < 80 cm, Males <94 cm) 112 (21.3)
 Elevated (Females ≥ 80 cm, Males ≥94 cm) 413 (78.7)
Percentage body fat (%)e (Mean ± SD) 36.02 ± 7.80
 Normal (Females < 32 % & Males < 25 %) 53 (10.3)
 High (Females ≥ 32 % & Males ≥ 25 %) 461 (89.7)
Diet Quality Indices (DQIs)  
Alternative healthy Eating Index (AHEI) (Score range:0–100) 52.61 ± 10.95
 Low (≤50) 220 (41.9)
 High (>50) 305 (58.1)
alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED) (Score Range 0–9) 4.33 ± 1.76
 Low (≤4.5) 266 (50.9)
 High (>4.5) 257 (49.1)
DASH-style diet score (Score range: 8–40) 25.28 ± 4.29
 Low (≤24) 237 (45.2)
 High (>24) 287 (54.8)
Lebanese Mediterranean Diet Index (LMD) (Score Range 9–27) 17.72 ± 3.24
 Low (≤18.0) 304 (57.9)
 High (>18.0) 221 (42.1)
Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) (Score Range 0–5) 4.51 ± 0.75
 Low (≤2.5) 13 (2.5)
 High (>2.5) 512 (97.5)
Breakfast frequency per week f (Mean ± SD) 5.76 ± 2.39
 Low (≤4 times/week) 116 (22.2)
 High (>4 times/week) 407 (77.8)
  1. aCategorical variables are presented as n (%) and continuous variables as mean ± SD
  2. bPresence of chronic disease was defined as having at least one chronic disease, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease
  3. cFamily history of chronic diseases was defined as having a family member with at least one chronic disease, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease
  4. dElevated waist circumference was defined according to the IDF waist circumference threshold for obesity (Zimmet et al. [25])
  5. e Sex specific percentage body fat cut off points were used to identify subjects with high or normal body fat (Lohman et al. [27])
  6. f For the breakfast frequency measure, scores were grouped into two categories low and high corresponding to values below and above the median respectively