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Table 4 Adjusted Odds Ratios Relating Anticholinergic Use to Incident Recurrent Falls over the next 12 monthsa

From: Anticholinergic medication use and falls in postmenopausal women: findings from the women’s health initiative cohort study

   Model 1   Model 2   Model 3
  Number With falls OR (95 % CI) Number With falls OR (95 % CI) Number With falls OR (95 % CI)
Any Anticholinergic use       
 No use 7883 1.0 7883 1.0 7743 1.0
 Any use 1938 1.86 (1.76, 1.97) 1938 1.53 (1.45, 1.62) 1903 1.51 (1.43, 1.60)
Number of Agents*       
 No use 7883 1.0 7883 1.0 7743 1.0
 1 1688 1.78 (1.67, 1.88) 1688 1.48 (1.40, 1.57) 1657 1.47 (1.38, 1.56)
 2+ 250 2.84 (2.45, 3.28) 250 2.04 (1.76, 2.36) 246 2.00 (1.73, 2.32)
Duration*       
 No use 7883 1.0 7883 1.0 7743 1.0
  <1 year 495 1.82 (1.64, 2.01) 495 1.52 (1.37, 1.68) 485 1.50 (1.36, 1.66)
 1–3 years 760 1.73 (1.59, 1.88) 760 1.42 (1.31, 1.55) 745 1.41 (1.29, 1.53)
  >3 years 683 2.10 (1.92, 2.29) 683 1.70 (1.55, 1.86) 673 1.68 (1.53, 1.84)
Specific Anticholinergic Classb       
 Antihistamine/Antiemetic/Antivertigo 742 1.39 (1.28, 1.51) 742 1.22 (1.12, 1.32) 734 1.21 (1.11, 1.32)
 Antidepressant/Antipsychotic 811 2.26 (2.07, 2.46) 811 1.83 (1.67, 1.99) 796 1.81 (1.66, 1.97)
 Gastrointestinal/Urinary Antimuscarinics/Miscellaneous 607 1.81 (1.64, 1.99) 607 1.49 (1.35, 1.64) 591 1.47 (1.33, 1.62)
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence intervals, OR odds ratio
  2. *Trend test p-values all <0.0001
  3. aOR and CI are estimated from GEE models using an unstructured correlation matrix, including baseline and year 3 medication exposure information, and recurrent falls in the following year. All models are adjusted by age using 5-year age intervals, and study component (clinical trial vs. observational study). Model 1 adjusted for linear age, diet modification and CaD trial randomization arms. Model 2 was further adjusted for race/ethnicity, body mass index, poor vision, arthritis, treated diabetes, low back pain, Alzheimer’s Disease diagnosis and/or use of medication, indications for use (Parkinson’s disease, urinary incontinence, depression, insomnia scale), self-reported health, alcohol intake, use of antiepileptics, and number of psychoactive medications. Model 3 was further adjusted for physical function, dizziness, current physical activity from walking. All adjustment variables are from baseline
  4. bOdds ratios for type of anticholinergic medication are adjusted for simultaneous use of a different type