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Table 5 Validity assessments: Spearman’s rank correlations between selected variables and GOHAI-ADD scores

From: Validation of a Dutch version of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-NL) in care-dependent and care-independent older people

Type of validity   Group A Group B
Variable Answer categories n Mean GOHAI-ADD score (SD) Correlation (r), p-value n Mean GOHAI-ADD score (SD) Correlation (r), p-value
Convergent validity
Perceived oral health
 Very bad 0 - r = 0.42 2 31.50 (7.78) r = 0.68
 Bad 1 31.00 (-) p <0.001 13 44.46 (6.67) p <0.001
 Moderate 23 46.39 (8.47)   23 49.30 (5.66)  
 Good 83 53.48 (6.13)   53 53.64 (4.19)  
 Very good 2 59.00 (0.00)   26 57.81 (2.58)  
Satisfied with oral health
 Yes 93 53.63 (6.00) r = 0.47 84 54.71 (4.54) r = 0.52
 No 15 41.73 (7.75) p <0.001 34 46.32 (7.24) p <0.001
Discriminant validity
Perceived general health
 Very bad NA NA r = 0.24 3 52.00 (8.54) r = 0.10
 Bad 1 59.00 (-) p = 0.014 24 51.21 (7.66) p = 0.30
 Moderate 21 47.62 (9.46)   38 52.05 (6.32)  
 Good 74 52.45 (6.88)   49 52.88 (6.54)  
 Very good 11 55.64 (4.99)   4 54.25 (4.27)  
Clinical treatment need
 Yes 40 48.80 (8.56) r = 0.29 65 50.52 (6.36) r = 0.36
 No 69 53.67 (6.24) p = 0.002 53 54.47 (6.34) p = <0.001
At least one tooth with cariesa
 Yes 7 51.86 (6.09) r = 0.08 32 50.66 (5.88) r = 0.42
 No 59 53.15 (6.00) p = 0.55 26 55.15 (5.53) p = 0.001
Known-group validity
Dental/ prosthodontic status
 Natural teeth without RDP 44 54.36 (4.62) r = 0.29 24 53.67 (6.29) r = 0.07
 Natural teeth with RDP 22 50.68 (7.42) p = 0.003 34 51.94 (5.97) p = 0.44
 No natural teeth 43 49.12 (8.84)   60 51.95 (7.13)  
no. of natural teetha (1-32) 66   r = 0.39 58   r = 0.24
    p <0.001    p = 0.067
Perceived need for treatment
 Yes 45 48.11 (8.24) r = 0.48 33 46.33 (7.50) r = 0.53
 No 63 54.79 (5.31) p <0.001 85 54.61 (4.51) p <0.001
Other correlations
Gender
 Female 52 50.33 (8.01) r = 0.17 68 52.40 (6.76) r = 0.01
 Male 57 53.30 (6.80) p = 0.08 50 52.16 (6.50) p = 0.88
age (65–100)    r = 0.09    r = 0.09
     p = 0.34    p = 0.36
SES high 34 53.00 (5.96) r = -0.18 28 54.21 (5.42) r = -0.14
  middle 54 51.39 (7.72) p = 0.07 47 52.11 (7.27) p = 0.13
  low 19 48.79 (8.66)   42 51.33 (6.53)  
  1. asubjects with at least 1 natural tooth
  2. *r Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient