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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the baseline sub-samples by area of residence (suburb) (n = 837)

From: Risk factors for falls in older adults in a South African Urban Community

Characteristic Gugulethu Plumstead Wynberg P value
N = 283 N = 188 N = 366
Age, mean (SD) years 74 (6.1) 75 (7.1) 74 (6.2) 0.225
Female (N (%)) 231 (81.6) 145 (77.1) 264 (72.1) 0.018
Marital status (N (%))     <0.001
 Married 50 (17.7) 68 (36.2) 144 (39.3)  
 Widowed 220 (77.7) 95 (50.5) 168 (45.9)  
 Divorced/separated 4 (1.4) 10 (5.3) 22 (6.0)  
 Never married 9 (3.2) 15 (8.0) 32 (8.7)  
Lives alone (N (%)) 4 (1.4) 67 (35.6) 43 (11.7) <0.001
Residents per household (median (IQR)) 7 (5–9) 2 (1–3) 3 (2–4) <0.001
Ethnic group (N (%))     <0.001
 Black African 227 (97.9) 5 (2.7) 1 (0.3)  
 Coloured 3 (1.1) 50 (26.6) 339 (92.6)  
 Indian 3 (1.1) 2 (1.10) 17 (94.6)  
 White 0 (0.0) 131 (69.7) 9 (2.5)  
Level of education (N (%))     <0.001
 No formal schooling 24 (8.5) 4 (2.1) 17 (4.6)  
 Primary schooling 160 (56.5) 10 (5.3) 71 (19.40)  
 Secondary schooling 94 (33.2) 150 (79.8) 255 (69.7)  
 Post school qualification 5 (1.8) 24 (12.8) 23 (6.3)  
Occupational category (N (%))     <0.001
 Unskilled 224 (79.2) 21 (11.2) 64 (17.5)  
 Skilled 55 (19.4) 131 (69.7) 250 (68.3)  
 Professional/Managerial 4 (1.4) 36 (19.1) 52 (14.2)  
Receipt of a social pension (yes) 281 (99.3) 90 (47.6) 280 (76.7) <0.001
SES index (median, IQR) 6 (5–6) 8 (7–8) 8 (7–8) <0.001
  1. Unless otherwise stated, numbers are n (%). IQR = interquartile range SD = Standard deviation. SES = Socio-economic status. P-value: ANOVA test for means, Kruskal-Wallis test for medians, χ2 test for categorical variables