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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Association between eating alone and depressive symptom in elders: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics N % Depressive symptom (%) P*
Gender Male 4015 50.4 6.7 <0.001
  Female 3953 49.6 10.8  
Age 60− 2927 36.7 7.8 <0.001
  65− 2067 25.9 7.6  
  70− 1280 16.1 9.5  
  75− 947 11.9 11.2  
  80+ 747 9.4 11.0  
Ethnicity Han ethnicity 7716 96.9 8.7 0.711
  Minorities 245 3.1 9.4  
Education Illiteracy 3819 48.0 9.7 0.017
  Primary school 3539 44.4 7.9  
  Middle school or Higher 605 7.6 7.4  
Perception of Rich 816 10.3 2.8 <0.001
economic status Moderate 6274 78.8 7.9  
  Poor 869 10.9 20.3  
Employment status Working 3199 40.3 7.4 <0.001
  Retired 4278 53.8 9.9  
  Never work 469 5.9 6.8  
Marriage Single 118 1.5 13.6 <0.001
  Married 6167 78.1 7.9  
  Widowed/divorced 1610 20.4 11.4  
Having a child Yes 7787 97.8 8.6 0.010
  No 177 2.2 14.1  
Smoking Currently yes 1814 22.8 6.1 <0.001
  Quitted 800 10.0 9.1  
  Never 5353 67.2 9.6  
Drinking Currently yes 2135 26.8 5.9 <0.001
  Quitted 703 8.8 11.4  
  Never 5129 64.4 9.6  
Physical activity Yes 1553 19.5 12.4 <0.001
  No 6409 80.5 7.9  
Underlying conditions Yes 4045 50.8 10.2 <0.001
  No 3923 49.2 7.2  
Limitation in activity Yes 203 2.6 29.1 <0.001
of daily living No 7731 97.4 8.2  
Eating arrangement With 4 persons or more 1382 17.3 4.5 <0.001
  With 3 persons 748 9.4 7.8  
  With 2 persons 758 9.5 6.7  
  With 1 person 3718 46.7 9.4  
  Eating alone 1362 17.1 12.9  
Living alone Living alone 1152 14.5 12.2 <0.001
  Not alone 6807 85.5 8.1  
  1. *Chi-square tests for trend were used to examine the association of depressive symptom with age and eating arrangement, respectively. Chi-square tests were used to examine the association between depressive symptom and each of the rest variables