Skip to main content

Table 3 Changes in music therapy versus standard care

From: Individual music therapy for managing neuropsychiatric symptoms for people with dementia and their carers: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study

Outcome Month 3-Baseline Month 5-Baseline Month 7-Baseline
n Mean difference 95 % confidence interval Standard error Effect size d p n Mean difference 95 % confidence interval Standard error Effect size d p n Mean difference 95 % confidence interval Standard error Effect size d p
Symptoms (NPI-NH)
Standard Care 7 −13.21 −24.50 to −1.93 5.13 1.44 0.026 7 −14.00 −24.25 to −3.76 4.66 1.69 0.012 7 −25.52 −39.10 to −11.95 6.17 2.32 0.002
Music Therapy 6 6 6
Disruptiveness (NPI-NH)
Standard care 7 −6.38 −11.53 to −1.23 1.52 2.34 0.02 7 −7.38 −11.20 to −3.57 1.73 2.39 0.001 7 −12.69 −18.50 to −6.88 2.64 2.69 0.001
Music therapy 6 6 6
Wellbeing (DCM)
Standard care 7 1.65 0.71 to 2.58 0.42 2.28 0.003 7 4.14 1.97 to 6.31 0.97 2.48 0.002 7 1.87 1.24 to 2.50 0.28 3.85 <0.001
Music therapy 5 5 5
Personal enhancers (DCM)
Standard care   −24.08 −97.47 to 49.32 17.06   0.294   −28.08 −86.70 to 30.55 13.63   0.176   −18.83 −37.68 to 0.026 4.38   0.050
Music therapy
  1. The results for the first three rows above have been obtained using the SPSS repeated measures analysis of variance procedure. The Greenhouse-Geisser statistic for checking the correlation structure is 0.85 for Symptom (NPI-NH), 0.78 for Disruptiveness (NPI-NH), and 0.82 for Wellbeing (DCM), and this has led to the decision to use the SPSS results assuming “sphericity”