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Table 1 Demographic characteristics, perceived health and healthcare use according to the three frailty stages

From: Fried phenotype of frailty: cross-sectional comparison of three frailty stages on various health domains

  All Non-frail Pre-frail Frail P-value
n = 8684 n = 5488 (63.2 %) n = 2441 (28.1 %) n = 755 (8.7 %)  
Age (yrs.) (mean ± SD)   74.2 (±6.4) 72.9 (±5.9) 75.9 (±6.5) 78.2 (±6.8) <0.001
Age groups 65-74 4510 (51.9 %) 3314 (60.4 %) 985 (40.4 %) 211 (27.9 %) <0.001
  75-84 3597 (41.4 %) 1979 (36.1 %) 1215 (49.8 %) 403 (53.4 %)
  85+ 577 (6.6 %) 195 (3.6 %) 241 (9.9 %) 141 (18.7 %)
Gender (male)   4619 (53.2 %) 3366 (61.3 %) 999 (40.9 %) 254 (33.6 %) <0.001
Marital status married/living together 5837 (68.8 %) 4056 (75.2 %) 1422 (60.2 %) 359 (48.9 %) <0.001
  unmarried/divorced 721 (8.5 %) 392 (7.3 %) 231 (9.8 %) 98 (13.4 %)
  widowed 1931 (22.7 %) 943 (17.5 %) 711 (30.1 %) 277 (37.7 %)
Level of education low 4903 (58.6 %) 2796 (52.2 %) 1554 (67.4 %) 553 (78.8 %) <0.001
  medium 1783 (21.3 %) 1254 (23.4 %) 415 (18.0 %) 114 (16.2 %)
  high 1681 (20.1 %) 1309 (24.4 %) 337 (14.6 %) 35 (5.0 %)
Perceived health and healthcare use
Perceived health (%) very good 7.3 10.5 2.2 0.1 <0.001
  good 50.9 64.4 33.8 6.1
  fair 35.6 24.4 55.5 53.9
  poor 5.6 0.7 8.1 34.1
  very poor 0.6 0.1 0.4 5.8
Healthcare use (past 12 months) (%) general practitioner <2 months 50.9 43.3 61.3 74.3 <0.001
  medical specialist 64.2 57.3 73.9 83.5 <0.001
  dietician 9.6 6.9 13.1 19.3 <0.001
  occupational therapist 4.1 1.7 6.2 16.8 <0.001
  physiotherapist 35.7 29.2 45.4 53.0 <0.001
  homecare (nursing care and household care) 19.1 6.4 31.9 68.1 <0.001
  social work 2.4 1.0 3.6 9.4 <0.001