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Table 3 Clinical characteristics associated with presence of pain at baseline in a sample (n = 350)a of Dutch nursing home patients.

From: Pain among nursing home patients in the Netherlands: prevalence, course, clinical correlates, recognition and analgesic treatment – an observational cohort study

Characteristic Mild pain symptoms n = 138 Serious pain symptoms n = 94
  Crude OR (95% CI)b Adjusted OR (95% CI)c Crude OR (95% CI)b Adjusted OR (95% CI)c
Age (>=80/<80) 0.83 (0.50–1.37)   0.61 (0.35–1.07)  
Sexe (female/male) 1.11 (0.65–1.88)   1.48 (0.81–2.70)  
MMSE-score (>23/<=23) 1.13 (0.67–1.91)   1.33 (0.75–2.34)  
Depressive symptoms (yes/no) 1.67 (0.98–2.84)   3.55 (1.98–6.35) 2.56 (1.34–4.89)
Anxiety symptoms (yes/no) 1.82 (0.97–3.38)   3.77 (1.98–7.17) 2.47 (1.22–4.99)
Sleeping problems (yes/no) 1.76 (0.94–3.29)   2.55 (1.32–4.90) 1.87 (0.92–3.79)
Number of physical illnesses (>3/<=3) 1.23 (0.72–2.11)   1.66 (0.91–3.03)  
Functional impairments (large/moderate) 0.95 (0.58–1.58)   1.34 (0.77–2.34)  
  1. a Complete data of all variables were available for 293 patients
  2. b Crude odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Controlgroup (n = 109): patients without pain.
  3. c Adjusted odds ratio derived from a multiple logistic regression model. As independent variables were entered variables with a statistically significant crude OR. Controlgroup (n = 109): patients without pain.
  4. d Statistically significant OR (p < 0.05) in bold characters.