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Table 1 Characteristics of the elderly people according to household composition at the baseline (n = 1084)

From: Risk factors of functional disability among community-dwelling elderly people by household in Japan: a prospective cohort study

Parameters Three-generation (n = 798) Children-only (n = 101) Spouse-only (n = 131) Living alone (n = 54) pvalue
  n (%) or mean (SD), SD: standard deviation  
Average age 77.9 (SD 5.4) 79.6 (SD 5.6) 76.1 (SD 4.5) 78.8 (SD 5.8) <0.001
Age-groups
70–74 241 (30.2) 21 (20.8) 54 (41.2) 16 (29.6) 0.001
75–79 279 (35.0) 32 (31.7) 51 (38.9) 15 (27.8)  
80–84 190 (23.8) 28 (27.7) 18 (13.7) 12 (22.2)  
> = 85 88 (11.0) 20 (19.8) 8 (6.1) 11 (20.4)  
Gender, men 325 (40.7) 26 (25.7) 66 (50.4) 16 (29.6) 0.001
History of disease
Hypertension 378 (47.4) 54 (53.5) 54 (41.2) 25 (46.3) 0.320
Heart disease 88 (11.1) 16 (15.8) 11 (8.4) 3 (5.6) 0.173
Osteoporosis 86 (10.8) 14 (13.9) 12 (9.2) 9 (16.7) 0.395
DM 85 (10.7) 6 (6.0) 11 (8.4) 4 (7.4) 0.402
Stroke 60 (7.5) 10 (9.9) 8 (6.1) 1 (1.9) 0.294
TMGI
IADL (0-5) 4.5 (SD 1.0) 4.3 (SD 1.3) 4.7 (SD 0.9) 4.7 (SD 0.7) 0.034
IA (0-4) 3.3 (SD 1.0) 2.9 (SD 1.4) 3.5 (SD 1.0) 3.0 (SD 1.2) <0.001
SR (0-4) 3.5 (SD 0.9.) 3.1 (SD 1.1) 3.6 (SD 0.9) 3.1 (SD 1.1) <0.001
MFS 9.6 (SD 3.9.) 8.9 (SD 4.0) 10.8 (SD 3.5) 9.2 (SD 3.9) 0.001
Falls experienced during the past year
Presence 210 (26.3) 25 (24.8) 29 (22.1) 18 (33.3) 0.449
DVS1) 4.8 (SD 2.4) 4.8 (SD 2.6) 5.5 (SD 2.3) 3.8 (SD 2.1) <.0001
DVS1) < =8 727 (91.1) 88 (88.9) 114 (87.0) 53 (98.1) 0.059
Frequency of going outdoors
< 1/week 159 (19.9) 33 (32.7) 18 (13.7) 18 (33.3) <0.001
Cognitive function
Mild or severe 41 (5.1) 7 (6.9) 6 (4.6) 4 (7.4) 0.759
GDS2) > =5 267 (33.5) 39 (40.6) 37 (28.2) 22 (40.7) 0.286
  1. 1)Missing data for 16. 2)Missing data for 48. Student’s t test, χ 2 test, or Fisher’s exact test. TMIG, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology index of competence; IADL, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; IA, Intellectual activity; SR, Social role; MFS, Motor Fitness Scale; DVS, Dietary Variety Score; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale.