Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the participants and the association with risk of fall injury

From: Medication and fall injury in the elderly population; do individual demographics, health status and lifestyle matter?

  Controls Cases   
Exposures % (n) % (n) Crude OR (95% CI) OR adjusted for age and sex (95% CI)
Demographics       
Age (in years)       
  65-69 37.0 (7597) 13.0 (60) 1.00 (REF)
70-74 25.0 (5140) 12.5 (58) 1.20 (0.79-1.81) 1.19 (0.79-1.81)
75-79 16.9 (3474) 17.5 (81) 2.76 (1.87-4.07) 2.72 (1.85-4.01)
80-84 12.2 (2494) 20.1 (93) 4.86 (3.34-7.08) 4.77 (3.27-6.94)
≥85 8.9 (1820) 36.9 (171) 10.79 (7.64-15.24) 10.49 (7.43-14.79)
Gender       
Male 47.2 (9680) 35.6 (165) 1.00 (REF)
Female 52.8 (10845) 64.4 (298) 1.58 (1.27-1.95) 1.41 (1.14-1.75)
Country of origin       
Sweden 84.8 (17395) 85.1 (394) 1.00 (REF)
Other Nordic countries 7.4 (1528) 7.8 (36 1.03 (0.70-1.52) 1.14 (0.77-1.69)
Other European countries 5.7 (1168) 5.4 (25) 0.93 (0.59-1.46) 0.92 (0.57-1.43)
The rest of the world 2.1 (434) 1.73 (8) 0.86 (0.41-1.80) 1.05 (0.49-2.23)
Marital status       
Married 57.3 (11767) 39.3 (182) 1.00 (REF)
Unmarried 7.2 (1474) 7.1 (33) 1.47 (0.98-2.20) 1.56 (1.04-2.35)
Divorced 18.1 (3707) 16.0 (74) 1.21 (0.88-1.65) 1.24 (0.90-1.70)
Widowed 17.4 (3577) 37.6 (174) 3.05 (2.41-3.86) 1.38 (1.05-1.80)
Housing and finance       
Type of housing       
Own house 40.2 (8126) 26.2 (117) 1.00 (REF)
Own apartment 34.4 (6962) 35.2 (157) 1.50 (1.14-1.97) 1.10 (0.84-1.45)
Rental accommodation 23.0 (4643) 32.5 (145) 1.99 (1.51-2.62) 1.30 (0.98-1.72)
Assisted living 1.3 (263) 5.4 (24) 6.20 (3.76-10.21) 2.01 (1.18-3.41)
Other 1.2 (240) 0.7 (3) 0.94 (0.29-3.02) 0.52 (0.16-1.69)
Presence of1:       
Financial stress - general 5.5 (1061) 8.6 (36) 1.44 (0.97-2.12) 1.62 (1.09-2.42)
Financial stress – health care 5.2 (1002) 5.8 (24) 1.06 (0.66-1.71) 1.37 (0.84-2.23)
Lifestyle       
Presence of1:       
<3 hours of exercise per week 73.3 (14469) 84.1 (354) 1.97 (1.46-2.65) 1.52 (1.12-2.07)
<2 hours of housework per day 60.4 (12086) 71.9 (317) 1.53 (1.21-1.93) 1.56 (1.22-1.99)
< 20 minutes of walking/cycling per day 26.6 (5333) 43.9 (194) 2.19 (1.77-2.71) 1.69 (1.35-2.10)
Sedentary behaviour 12.5 (2451) 28.7 (121) 2.76 (2.17-3.50) 2.05 (1.59-2.65)
Alcohol binge drinking 7.1 (1413) 9.1 (40) 1.18 (0.82-1.70) 1.84 (1.26-2.69)
Daily smoking 9.7 (1921) 11.8 (52) 1.21 (0.87-1.69) 1.66 (1.18-2.32)
Daily smokeless tobacco use 4.1 (796) 2.8 (12) 0.64 (0.33-1.24) 1.12 (0.56-2.22)
Social circumstances       
Presence of1:       
Living alone 33.9 (6836) 57.0 (254) 2.37 (1.92-2.93) 1.45 (1.14-1.84)
Distrusting the neighbours 4.5 (903) 6.5 (29) 1.44 (0.94-2.21) 1.57 (1.01-2.44)
Lack of social support 12.8 (2580) 14.4 (64) 1.13 (0.84-1.51) 1.20 (0.89-1.61)
Low participation in social activities 41.4 (8246) 59.4 (260) 2.12 (1.71-2.63) 1.72 (1.38-2.16)
Health status       
BMI       
Underweight 1.8 (350) 4.9 (20) 2.31 (1.37-3.90) 1.52 (0.88-2.61)
Normal weight 45.5 (8868) 56.0 (229) 1.00 (REF)
Overweight 39.7 (7725) 31.5 (129) 0.65 (0.51-0.83) 0.80 (0.63-1.02)
Obesity 13.1 (2542) 7.6 (31) 0.42 (0.28-0.65) 0.56 (0.36-0.85)
Presence of1:       
Poor self-rated health 6.3 (1250) 19.4 (85) 3.64 (2.78-4.78) 2.56 (1.91-3.43)
Long-term limiting disease 38.4 (7515) 57.8 (241) 2.35 (1.89-2.93) 1.83 (1.45-2.30)
Persistent fatigue 30.3 (5794) 45.3 (182) 2.03 (1.63-2.54) 1.50 (1.19-1.91)
Sleep problems 39.0 (7568) 51.5 (213) 1.63 (1.31-2.03) 1.43 (1.14-1.80)
Reduced mobility 27.3 (5466) 59.4 (265) 3.87 (3.12-4.79) 2.34 (1.85-2.95)
Pain or discomfort 60.0 (11913) 76.0 (335) 2.13 (1.67-2.72) 1.67 (1.30-2.15)
Poor mental health (GHQ-12 ≥ 3) 11.0 (2216) 25.9 (114) 2.74 (2.15-3.48) 2.12 (1.64-2.74)
Depression diagnosis 7.7 (1491) 9.0 (38) 1.19 (0.82-1.73) 1.33 (0.91-1.93)
Diabetes diagnosis 11.8 (2386) 13.1 (59) 1.10 (0.81-1.50) 1.18 (0.87-1.61)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnosis 5.3 (1070) 9.1 (40) 1.62 (1.13-2.33) 1.38 (0.95-2.01)
Angina diagnosis 9.8 (1938) 15.8 (68) 1.66 (1.24-2.23) 1.24 (0.92-1.68)
Congestive heart failure diagnosis 7.8 (1547) 17.8 (77) 2.39 (1.81-3.16) 1.50 (1.12-2.01)
High blood pressure 49.2 (9958) 53.6 (241) 1.20 (0.97-1.48) 1.01 (0.82-1.26)
  1. Bold represent significant ORs at the p < .05 level while ORs in bold italics represent risk factors that were entered into the final model after testing as described in the methods.
  2. 1The absence of the characteristic was used as a reference group.