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Table 1 General characteristics of the studies included

From: Screening for frailty in primary care: a systematic review of the psychometric properties of the frailty index in community-dwelling older people

Study Design data set Total N (% women) Follow-up (LTFU) FI deficits FI scores
Mean age (yrs ± SD) Deficit number Deficit scoring Deficit weighting Mean/Median(± SD/IQR) Range
Setting
Armstrong et al. [21] Retrospective cohort study 23,952 (69.4%) 1 yr (?) 50 B No ? ? – 0.66
81.7 (± 7.4)  
8 CCACs Home-care clients
Cigolle et al. [20] Cross-sectional study 1,657 (55.5%) N/A 38 ? ? ? ?
?
HRS Community-dwelling
Drubbel et al. [22] Retrospective cohort study 1,679 (59%) 2 yrs (10.5%) 36 B No 0.08 (0.03-0.14) 0 – 0.42
Median 73 (IQR 65–81)   
GPs EMRs Community-dwelling
Fang et al. [32] Retrospective cohort study 3,257 (51.1%) 8 yrs (13.8%) 33 B/M No 0.13 (± ?) 0 – 0.67
70.1 (± 9.0)   
BLSA Community-dwelling
García-González et al. [33] Retrospective Total sample: 4,872 1.95 yrs (13.2%) 34 B/M No 0.16 (± 0.11) 0 – 0.65
cohort study Analyzed sample:   
MHAS 4,082 (52.5%)  
73 (range 65–105)
Community-dwelling
Gu et al. [23] Retrospective cohort study 13,861 (57.2%) 3 yrs (12.9%) 39 B Yes 0.26 (± ?) ?
? (range 65–109)   
CLHLS Population-based
Hogan et al. [37] Retrospective cohort study 1,066 (76.7%) 1 yr (0%) 83a B/M No ? ?
84.9 (± 7.3)  
ACCES Assisted living residents
Kulminski et al. [24] Retrospective cohort study 4,721 (?%) 4 yrs (0%) 48 B No ? 0 – 0.70
?  
CHS Population-based  
Kulminski et al. [25] Retrospective cohort study 24,206 (65.9%) 4 yrs (?) 32 B No 0.25 (± ?) 0 – 0.70
78.3 (± ?)   
NLTCS Population-based
Lucicesare et al. [27] Prospective cohort study 1,016 (55.4%) 4 yrs (0%) 43 B No 0.14 (± ?) 0 – 0.70
74.7 (± 7.1)   
CSBA Population –based
Lucicesare et al. [28] Retrospective cohort study 1,318 (63.1%) 5 yrs (?) 38 ? ? ? 0 – 0.59
76.05 (± ?)
CSHA Population-based
Mitnitski et al. [34] Retrospective cohort study NPHS, CSHA (3), ALSA, SOPSA, NHANES, H-70, NLTCS-I, ICONS, BCS 36,424 (58.5%) 3-12 yrs (?) 10 FI’s: 38-40 B/M No ? ?
74 (range: 27 – 105)  
7 community-dwelling and 4 clinical/institutional samples   1 FI: 13
Mitnitski et al. [6] Retrospective cohort study 2,913 (?%) 5 yrs (?) 92 B No ? ?
82 (± 7.4)  
CSHA Population-based
Rockwood et al. [28] Retrospective cohort study 2,305 (?%) 5 yrs (?) 70 B/M No ? 0 – 0.70
? ?
CSHA Population-based
Searle et al. [9] Retrospective cohort study 754 (64.6%) 9 yrs (<10%) 40 B/M No ? 0 – 0.60
?  
YPEP Community-dwelling  
Shi et al. [35] Retrospective cohort study 3,257 ((51.1%) 8 yrs (12.2%) 35 B/M No ? ? – 0.70
70.1 (± 9.0)  
BLSA Community-dwelling  
Song et al. [29] Retrospective cohort study 2,740 (60.8%) 10 yrs (10.1%) 36 B No 0.15 (± ?) 0 – 0.70
74 (± 6.6)   
NPHS Population-based
Theou et al. [36] Retrospective cohort study 2,305 (62.1%) 5 yrs (?) FI 1: 37b B/M No FI 2: 0.24 (± 0.15) 0 – 0.68
84.6 (± 7.0)   FI 2: 37c
CSHA Community-dwelling   
Woo et al. [30] Prospective cohort study 4,000 (50%) 4 yrs (15.9%) 47 B No ? ?
?  
CUHKS Community-dwelling
Woo et al. [31] Retrospective cohort study 2,032 (50.8%) 10 yrs 62 B Yes 0.13 (?) 0 – 0.53
? 42.4% (3 yrs)  
HKHS Population-based 85.3% (10 yrs)
  1. ? = no information found/unclear; aIn this study, two FIs were assessed: the Armstrong index and the Full Frailty Index. Only the second FI is reported here (both FIs show similar results); bExcluding ADLs/comorbidities, cIncluding ADLs/comorbidities comprising 37 different deficits to FI 1; B = binary scoring; FI = Frailty Index; IQR = Interquartile range; LTFU = Lost to follow-up; M = multilevel scoring; N/A = not applicable; Population-based = representative sample of community-dwelling and institutionalized older people; SD = standard deviation; Data sources: ACCES = Alberta Continuing Care Epidemiological Studies; ALSA = Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing; BCS = Breast Cancer Survivor Study; BLSA = Beijing Longitudinal Study of Ageing; CCAC = Community Care Access Centre; CHS = Cardiovasculair Health Study; CLHLS = Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey; CSBA = Conselice Study of Brain Ageing; CSHA: Canadian Study of Health and Ageing; CUHKS = Chinese University of Hong Kong Study; GPs EMR = General Practitioners’ Electronic Medical Record; H-70 = Gothenburg Study; HKHS = Hong Kong Health Survey; HKSPH = Hong Kong School of Public Health study; HRS = Health and Retirement Survey; ICONS = Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia; MHAS = Mexican Health and Aging Study; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; NLTCS (−i) = National Long Term Care Survey (−institute); NPHS = National Population Health Survey; SOPSA = Sydney Older Persons Studies on Aging; YPEP = Yale Precipitating Events Project.