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Table 3 Description of Interventions

From: Effectiveness of a primary care based multifactorial intervention to improve frailty parameters in the elderly: a randomised clinical trial: rationale and study design

3.1 Description of the rehabilitation therapy
Basic exercise Alternative exercise Muscle group
▪ Chest Press against elastic resistance - sitting on a chair ▪ Chest Press against the wall ▪ Pectoral muscles
▪ Reverse Butterfly against elastic resistance - sitting on a chair   ▪ Upper back muscles
▪ Arm press against elastic resistance - sitting on a chair ▪ Arm press against elastic resistance - standing position ▪ Muscles of the arms, and shoulders
▪ Stand up with palms on thighs - sitting on a chair ▪ Stand up using hand weighs - sitting on a chair ▪ Quadricep, hamstring, and gluteal muscles
▪ Lift the legs with hands on hips - sitting on a chair   ▪ Hip flexor muscles
▪ Hip abduction/adduction - sitting on a chair ▪ Hip abduction/adduction - standing position ▪ Abductor/Adductor muscles
▪ Knee flexion - sitting on a chair ▪ Knee flexion - standing position ▪ Hamstring muscles
▪ Knee extension - sitting on a chair   ▪Quadricep muscles
▪ Heel raises - sitting on a chair ▪ Heel raises - standing position ▪ Gastrocnemius and soleus muscles
3.2 Description of the memory workshops  
Memory Language Sensory activation Reasoning and calculation
Short and Long-Term Visual Memory Evocation of words beginning with different letters Series of logical visual pattern recognition Gnosia and praxia different developing techniques (reproduction of pragmatic models)
Short and Long-Term Written Memory Crosswords Marking edge of silhouettes Letters and numbers matching through Maze Paths
Short and Long-Term Oral Memory Completeness of unfinished sentences Coloring components of Hidden Figures Test Executive functions enhancing: abstract concepts of similar but different objects
Short and Long-Term Musical Memory Oral communication with clue words Spot the differences between two pictures Identification of the inappropriate word in a pool of words
Working memory: identification of hidden figures test Word search Picture copies execution Reading and exclusion of senseless sentences
Memorize an image and draw it from memory Synonyms and antonyms Objects, materials and sounds recognition with closed eyes Filling the gap
True/False sentences Matching words and their meaning Group interaction by singing and musical performances Numerical skills practice: operations and mental agility
Logos recognition Visual-verb generation task: denomination of images, objects, parts of the human body Famous faces recognition  
Geographical memory practice Rearrange letters to form a word and rearrange words to form grammatical sentences   
3.3 Description of the polymedication review
Who does the intervention? What are the objectives and criteria? How is the intervention performed?
2 doctors from the Project Group. To reduce drug prescription of polymedicated patients* if possible, following : A personalized e-mail is sent to each GP responsible for the patient participating in the intervention group throughout the first week of patient inclusion.
-Stopp criteria,
Depending on the baseline drug prescription at the beginning of the study. Every e-mail considers the individual profile of the patient referred and tries to adapt the general criteria to each particular case.
The GP who regularly attends the intervention patient performs both reduction and re-education of unnecessary drugs. This approach should be done in a maximum of 3 clinical interviews specifically designed for this subject.
    E-mail content suggests the most recommended changes but the final decision corresponds to the discretion of the physician responsible for the patient.
  1. *Polymedicated Patient: one that takes more than five drugs daily and continuously for a period not less than six months.