Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Aerobic programs (locomotive, low challenge balance)

From: The effect of interactive cognitive-motor training in reducing fall risk in older people: a systematic review

Study, sample size Intervention vs Control (content, dose) Sample characteristics Main findings
  Within-group Between-group
Cognitive-motor only
Mirelman 2011 [32] N = 20 IG: VR treadmill 6 wk, 3/wk, 45 min Community-dwelling; age 67.1 (6.5), 55–79; idiopathic PD; moderately impaired (Hoehn and Yahr 2–3); walking difficulties; able to walk unassisted for 5 min; no serious chronic medical condition; no major visual impairment, no major depression; no dementia + gait speed pre 1.16 (0.18) post 1.26 (0.20), p < .05 follow-up 1.28 (0.19), p < .05 Obstacle negotiation + DT gait speed p = .003
CG: Treadmill (for some outcomes) 6 wk, 3/wk, 45 min DT stride length p < .001
- speed pre 0.96 (0.19) post 1.17 (0.22), p < .05cfollow-up 1.17 (0.20), p < .05
- stride length pre 148 (17) post 161 (18), p < .05 follow-up 161 (17), p < .05
FSST pre 13.3 (2.5) post 11.6 (1.6), p < .05 follow-up 11.9 (1.6), p < .05
TMT A pre 69.0 (15.9) post 57.2 (11.9), p = .003
TMT B pre 141.4 (34.9) post 120.4 (18.2), P = .05
DTC pre 13.9 (14.8) post 6.9 (8.4), p < .05
DT gait speed pre 1.01 (0.23) post 1.17 (0.15), p < .05 follow-up 1.13 (0.17), p < .05
No Gait variability, DTC follow-up
Cognitive-motor plus other components
Cho 2013 [39] N = 14 IG: VR treadmill + therapeutic exercise (lower extremity muscle strength and gait), occupational therapy, and functional electrical stimulation 6 wk, 3/wk, 30 min + exercise 6 wk, 5/wk, 30 min; OT 6 wk, 5/wk, 30 min; stimulation 6 wk, 5/wk, 20 min Hemiparesis after stroke within 6mo; stroke rehabilitation ward; age IG 64.57 (4.35), CG 65.14 (4.74); able to walk independently both with and without assistive devices; able to understand and follow simple verbal instructions; MMSE > 24; Brunnstrom score between 1 and 4 for the lower extremity; no serious visual impairment or hearing disorder; no severe heart disease or uncontrolled hypertension and pain; no neurologic or orthopedic disease that might interfere with the study + BBS pre 36.71 (2.28) post 40.85 (1.67), p < .05 + BBS p = .011
TUG p = .013
TUG pre 22.93 (4.29) post 20.67 (3.73), p < .05
CG: Treadmill + therapeutic exercise (lower extremity muscle strength and gait), occupational therapy, and functional electrical stimulation 6 wk, 3/wk, 30 min + exercise 6 wk, 5/wk, 30 min; OT 6 wk, 5/wk, 30 min; stimulation 6 wk, 5/wk, 20 min Gait speed (cm/s) pre 54.27 (16.18) post 79.67 (13.91), p < .05 Gait speed p = .013
Cadence pre77.32 (21.91) post 104.04 (10.03), p < .05
Cadence p = .035
step length pre 38.91 (8.24) post 50.51 (9.74), p < .05
No Spatial gait parameters
stride length pre 79.21 (16.82) post 99.91 (18.74), p < .05 single limb support pre28.17 (4.77) post 33.64 (2.67), p < .05
  1. IG intervention group, CG control group, wk week, mo months, VR virtual reality, PD Parkinson’s Disease, MMSE Minimental State Examination, FSST Four Square Step Test, TMT Trailmaking Test, DTC dual task costs, DT dual task, BBS Berg Balance Scale, TUG timed up and go test.