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Table 4 Pathways of loneliness and pet ownership in Wave 5 (OR and 95% CI)

From: Does owning a pet protect older people against loneliness?

Loneliness pathway Sample 1 (N) Sample 2 (N)1 Men Women
Adjusted-sample 1 Adjusted-sample 2 Adjusted-sample 1 Adjusted-sample 2
Never lonely 2,540 1,025 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
Always lonely 256 84 0.81 (0.44-1.47) 1.12 (0.38-3.36) 1.41 (0.99-2.00) 2.40 (1.18-4.89)
Into loneliness 332 139 1.11 (0.76-1.62) 1.09 (0.59-2.04) 0.97 (0.70-1.35) 0.76 (0.41-1.40)
Out of loneliness 376 165 0.94 (0.60-1.48) 0.70 (0.31-1.60) 1.71 (1.25-2.35) 1.81 (1.02-3.20)
Fluctuating 333 137 1.02 (0.67-1.55) 1.00 (0.45-2.21) 1.24 (0.88-1.73) 1.28 (0.70-2.34)
  1. Adjusted 1 = for gender (in pooled analysis), for gender (in pooled analysis), age, marital status, working status, social class, health status, social participation, close personal relationships, household income.
  2. Adjusted 2 = additionally adjusted for pet ownership in Wave 0 = Sample 2.
  3. 1Those, who have information on pet ownership in Wave 0.