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Table 2 The association between pet ownership (in Wave 0 and Wave 5) and odds of loneliness (in Waves 2 to 5) (OR and 95% CI)

From: Does owning a pet protect older people against loneliness?

  Loneliness
  Cross-sectional Prospective analysis
Pet ownership in wave 5 Wave 0-wave 2 (2001–2004) Wave 0-wave 3 (2001–2006) Wave 0-wave 4 (2001 – 2008) Wave 0-wave 5 (2001–2010)
N 4,638 1,958 1,886 1,853 1,890
All  
  No 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  Yes 1.24 (1.06-1.47) 1.25 (0.98-1.61) 1.23 (0.96-1.58) 1.38 (1.08-1.77) 1.31 (1.03-1.68)
Men  
  No 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  Yes 1.04 (0.78-1.38) 1.03 (0.69-1.54) 0.98 (0.65-1.49) 0.84 (0.55-1.29) 1.06 (0.70-1.60)
Women  
  No 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  Yes 1.41 (1.15-1.73) 1.39 (1.01-1.92) 1.40 (1.03-1.90) 1.84 (1.34-2.52) 1.50 (1.09-2.05)
P sex interaction 0.03 0.30 0.19 0.005 0.13
  1. Adjusted for gender (in pooled analysis), age, marital status, working status, social class, health status, social participation, close personal relationships, household income.