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Table 2 Prevalence of risk factors and their association with falls according to adjusted multiple regression analysis, expressed as odds ratios (OR), n= 1763

From: Falls in the general elderly population: a 3- and 6- year prospective study of risk factors using data from the longitudinal population study ‘Good ageing in Skane’

Risk factors Non-fallers Fallers Crude OR OR adjusted for age OR adjusted for age and sex
n / % n / % (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Medical and psychological
Heart disease No 1169/85 203/15 1.70 1.26 1.36
Yes 299/77 88/23 (1.28 - 2.24) (0.94 - 1.69) (1.00 - 1.83)
Heart failure with symptoms No 1369/84.5 252/15.5 2.81 1.76 1.88
Yes 60/65.9 31/34.1 (1.78 - 4.42) (1.10 - 2.83) (1.17 - 3.04)
Stroke No 1368/84.3 255/15.7 2.03 1.38 1.51
Yes 98/72.6 37/27.4 (1.36 - 3.03) (0.91 - 2.10) (0.98 - 2.30)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease No 1441/83.5 285/16.5 1.45 1.32 1.33
Yes 28/77.8 8/22.2 (0.65 - 3.20) (0.59 - 2.97) (0.59 - 2.99)
Diabetes, type 1 No 1455/83.3 291/16.7 0.50 0.54 0.50
Yes 10/90.9 1/9.1 (0.06 - 3.92) (0.07 - 4.40) (0.06 - 4.17)
Osteoporosis-related fracture No 1330/84.1 252/15.9 1.53 1.01 0.85
Yes 135/77.6 39/22.4 (1.04 - 2.23) (0.68 - 1.51) (0.56 - 1.29)
Hip fracture No 1432/83.7 279/16.3 2.44 1.59 1.53
Yes 21/67.7 10/32.3 (1.14 - 5.25) (0.72 - 3.54) (0.68 - 3.43)
Osteoarthritis of hip and/or knee No 1230/85.0 217/15.0 1.80 1.55 1.54
Yes 240/75.9 76/24.1 (1.34 - 2.41) (1.14 - 2.10) (1.14 - 2.10)
Dementia No 1396/83.9 268/16.1 1.93 1.21 1.30
Yes 27/73.0 10/27.0 (0.92 - 4.03) (0.56 - 2.59) (0.60 - 2.82)
Epilepsy No 1452/83.4 289/16.6 0.39 0.35 0.33
Yes 13/92.9 1/7.1 (0.05 - 2.97) (0.04 - 2.80) (0.04 - 2.63)
Parkinson’s disease No 1462/83.5 289/16.5 1.01 0.45 0.52
Yes 5/83.3 1/16.7 (0.12 - 8.69) (0.05 - 3.93) (0.06 - 4.59)
Anaemia No 1343/83.8 260/16.2 1.54 0.96 1.26
Yes 77/77.0 23/23.0 (0.95 – 2.50) (0.58 – 1.58) (0.75 – 2.13)
Depression No 1201/84.2 226/15.8 1.32 1.50 1.35
Yes 241/80.1 60/19.9 (0.96 - 1.82) (1.08 - 2.08) (0.97 - 1.88)
Psychosis No 1426/83.4 283/16.6 1.22 1.40 1.37
Yes 33/80.5 8/19.5 (0.56 - 2.67) (0.62 - 3.14) (0.61 - 3.08)
Cognitive impairment No 1330/84.4 246/15.6 2.03 1.32 1.32
Yes 101/72.7 38/27.3 (1.37 – 3.03) (0.87 – 2.01) (0.87 – 2.02)
Sleeping disorders No 939/85.4 161/14.6 1.46 1.40 1.30
Yes 528/80.0 132/20.0 (1.13 - 1.88) (1.08 - 1.82) (0.99 - 1.69)
Medication use
Sedative and hypnotic drugs No 853/82.5 181/17.5 1.70 1.35 1.28
Yes 183/73.5 66/26.5 (1.23 - 2.35) (0.97 - 1.89) (0.91 - 1.79)
Neuroleptic drugs No 1026/81.0 241/19.0 2.55 3.62 3.30
Yes 10/62.5 6/37.5 (0.92 - 7.10) (1.27 - 10.36) (1.15 - 9.43)
Anticholinergic drugs No 998/80.6 240/19.4 0.77 0.65 0.66
Yes 38/84.4 7/15.6 (0.34 - 1.74) (0.28 - 1.49) (0.29 - 1.53)
Antihypertensive drugs No 918/81.0 215/19.0 1.16 1.08 1.16
Yes 118/78.7 32/21.3 (0.76 - 1.76) (0.70 - 1.65) (0.75 - 1.79)
Diuretic drugs No 736/82.8 153/17.2 1.51 1.16 1.19
Yes 300/76.1 94/23.9 (1.13 - 2.01) (0.86 - 1.57) (0.87 - 1.61)
Use of fall risk drugs No 983/87.1 145/12.9 2.06 1.50 1.48
Yes 487/76.7 148/23.3 (1.60 - 2.66) (1.15 - 1.97) (1.13 - 1.94)
Use of other drugs No 921/82.6 194/17.4 0.86 0.99 0.96
Yes 549/84.7 99/15.3 (0.66 - 1.12) (0.75 - 1.30) (0.73 - 1.27)
Sensory and neuromuscular
Vertigo No 1018/85.5 173/14.5 1.56 1.44 1.36
Yes 452/79.0 120/21.0 (1.21 – 2.02) (1.10 – 1.87) (1.04 – 1.78)
Current pain No 663/85.3 114/14.7 1.32 1.34 1.29
Yes 787/81.6 178/18.4 (1.02 – 1.70) (1.03 – 1.75) (0.99 – 1.68)
Urine incontinence No 1234/84.9 219/15.1 1.89 1.49 1.31
Yes 200/74.9 67/25.1 (1.38 - 2.58) (1.08 - 2.06) (0.94 - 1.82)
Nocturia No 1366/84.5 251/15.5 2.80 1.95 1.75
Yes 68/66.0 35/34.0 (1.82 - 4.30) (1.25 - 3.05) (1.12 - 2.75)
Balance and mobility
Tendency to fall No 1335/84.1 253/15.9 1.58 1.28 1.27
Yes 134/77.0 40/23.0 (1.08 – 2.30) (0.87 – 1.90) (0.86 – 1.88)
Pain during movement No 621/85.5 105/14.5 1.31 1.39 1.30
Yes 849/81.9 188/18.1 (1.01 – 1.70) (1.06 – 1.82) (0.99 – 1.70)
Impaired mobility No 1343/85.2 233/14.8 3.03 1.65 1.50
Yes 101/65.6 53/34.4 (2.11 - 4.34) (1.11 - 2.45) (1.00 - 2.24)
Low walking speed No 851/90.4 90/9.6 2.97 2.02 1.77
Yes 554/76.1 174/23.9 (2.25 - 3.91) (1.47 - 2.78) (1.28 - 2.46)
Low physical activity No 1227/84.9 219/15.1 1.76 1.28 1.32
Yes 223/76.1 70/23.9 (1.30 - 2.39) (0.93 - 1.76) (0.95 - 1.83)
Environmental and sociodemographic
Living alone No 931/87.2 137/12.8 1.97 1.46 1.29
Yes 539/77.6 156/22.4 (1.53 - 2.53) (1.12 - 1.91) (0.98 - 1.71)
Residential home No 1444/83.7 281/16.3 3.74 1.77 1.81
Yes 11/57.9 8/42.1 (1.49 - 9.38) (0.69 - 4.53) (0.69 - 4.72)
Outdoor adaptation No 317/84.8 57/15.2 1.14 1.04 1.04
Yes 999/83.0 205/17.0 (0.83 - 1.57) (0.75 - 1.44) (0.75 - 1.45)
Indoor adaptation No 1099/85.9 181/14.1 1.83 1.50 1.45
Yes 371/76.8 112/23.2 (1.41 - 2.39) (1.14 - 1.97) (1.10 - 1.91)
Functional ability
Dependence in No 1302/84.3 243/15.7 1.89 1.33 1.47
iADL Yes 125/74.0 44/26.0 (1.30 – 2.73) (0.90 – 1.96) (0.99 – 2.18)
Dependence in No 1131/85.4 193/14.6 1.86 1.49 1.35
pADL Yes 296/75.9 94/24.1 (1.41 – 2.46) (1.12 – 1.99) (1.00 – 1.81)
  1. (Bold values indicate statistical significance).