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Table 1 Summary of intervention arms

From: Pilot comparative effectiveness study of surface perturbation treadmill training to prevent falls in older adults

Exercise type Example Treatment  
Standard PT SPTT (ActiveStep®)
Strengthening and flexibility • Lower extremity and trunk strengthening (i.e. sit to stand, heel-toe-raises, resistance bands) X X
• Lower extremity stretching (i.e. gastrocnemius, hamstrings, hip flexors)
Static and dynamic balance • Challenging vestibular, visual and somatosensory system (i.e. altering base of support and/or surface, closing eyes, head movement) X X
• Elicit ankle, hip and stepping strategies
  • Incorporate cognitive challenge and dual task   
Mobility Training • Assess appropriate assistive device X X
  • Vary gait speed   
  • Challenge surface, distance, obstacles, cognitive and dual task, stop/start   
Dynamic Stability Trip and Slip Training • Progressively challenging anterior, posterior and lateral surface perturbation   X
• Step response to perturbation
• Walking recovery after perturbation