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Table 3 Sex-specific rates of injurious falls (per 100 person-years) and women-to-men rate ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals, by place of falling and injury type and severity

From: Sex differences in circumstances and consequences of outdoor and indoor falls in older adults in the MOBILIZE Boston cohort study

  Men Women Crude RR Adjusted#RR
Outdoor falls     
  Any injury 17.4 (14.2 - 21.3) 17.6 (14.7 - 21.0) 1.01 (0.77 - 1.33) 1.15 (0.88 - 1.51)
  Fracture 1.3 (0.7 - 2.5) 1.9 (1.3 - 2.8) 1.44 (0.69 - 3.01) 1.77 (0.85 - 3.68)
  Other serious injury 2.1 (1.2 - 3.6) 2.1 (1.4 - 3.1) 0.99 (0.51 - 1.93) 1.12 (0.58 - 2.18)
  Hospital admission 0.8 (0.4 - 1.8) 0.9 (0.5 - 1.7) 1.14 (0.41 - 3.20) 1.08 (0.37 - 3.17)
Indoor falls     
  Any injury 10.7 (8.0 - 14.3) 20.9 (17.8 - 24.6) 1.98 (1.44 - 2.72)** 1.97 (1.44 - 2.68)**
  Fracture 0.8 (0.2 - 2.8) 2.9 (2.0 - 4.2) 4.28 (1.58 - 11.62)** 4.68 (1.52 - 14.4)**
  Other serious injury 1.6 (0.9 - 2.8) 3.6 (2.6 - 5.0) 2.24 (1.14 - 4.42)* 2.48 (1.20 - 5.13)*
  Hospital admission 1.6 (0.7 - 3.6) 3.0 (2.1 - 4.2) 1.90 (0.92 - 3.94) 1.71 (0.81 - 3.60)
  1. “Any injury” includes any positive response to the query “Did you hurt yourself in any way when you fell?”
  2. “Other serious injury” includes sprains; pulled or torn muscles, tendons or ligaments; dislocated joints; and concussions.
  3. All rates and rate ratios estimated by negative binomial regression.
  4. *p-value <0.05, ** p-value <0.01.
  5. #Rate ratios adjusted for a combined risk score composed of the characteristics in Table 1: age, education, race, body mass index, physical activity, blocks walked per week, outdoor walking type, balance, chair-stand ability, gait speed, activities of daily living, short physical performance battery, reduced activity due to illness in past year, poor vision, bodily pain, number of comorbidities, self-rated health, peripheral neuropathy, foot pain, knee osteoarthritis, depression, number of medications, use of psychotropic medication, MMSE, Trails-B score, number of falls in year before baseline and falls efficacy.