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Table 3 Characteristics of participants and comparison with patients who refused to participate

From: Validation of the spiritual distress assessment tool in older hospitalized patients

Characteristics Study sample (N = 203) Patients who refused to participate (N = 97) P-val Wilcoxon or Chi2
Mean Age (years) 81.4 ± 7.1 80.8 ± 6.9 0.361
Women (%) 69.5 66.0 0.545
Living alone (%) 56.3 58.5 0.719
Cognitive impairment* (%) 15.8 16.5 0.890
Depressive Symptoms§ (%) 14.7 12.4 0.594
Basic ADL at admission¥ 3.4 ± 1.5 3.1 ± 1.5 0.195
  1. * Cognitive impairment defined as a MMSE score < 2426
  2. § Depressive symptoms defined as GDS score ≥ 6 25
  3. ¥ Basic ADL from Katz 28