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Table 2 Factors associated with inappropriate medication use (IMU) in multivariate analysis*, articles published between 1990 and 2010

From: Inappropriate medication use among the elderly: a systematic review of administrative databases

Reference/Year Sex Age No. of medications
Lai et al., 2009 [21] Male (ref. Female) 0.98 (0.98-0.98) Age (ref. 65-69) 70-74: 0.99 (0.99-0.99) 75-79: 1.00 (0.99-1.00) ≥ 80: 1.02 (1.02-1.02) No. of medications 4-6: 2.70 (2.69-2.70) ≥ 7: 4.53(4.52-4.54)
Pugh et al.,2008 [26] Female (ref. Male) 1.25 (1.19-1.32) Age (ref. ≥ 85) 65-74: 1.16 (1.11-1.22) 75-84: 1.08 (1.04-1.12) Unique drugs (ref. ≥ 10) 1-3: 0.10(0.10-0.11) 4-6: 0.25 (0.24-0.26) 7-9: 0.46 (0.45-0.47)
Bierman et al.,2007 [27] Female (ref. Male) 1.23 (1.18-1.27) Age (ref. ≥ 85) 65-74: 1.11 (1.07-1.14)m 75-84: 1.05 (1.02-1.09)m No. of medications 1.17 (1.17-1.17)m 1.18 (1.17-1.19) w
Maio et al.,2006 [22] Female (ref. Male) 0.92 (0.91-0.93) Age (ref. 65-74) 75-84: 1.11 (1.09-1.12) ≥ 85: 1.18 (1.16-1.20) No. of drugs prescribed (ref. 1-3) 4-6: 2.37 (2.31-2.42) 7-9: 3.91 (3.82-4.01) ≥ 10: 7.33 (7.15-7.51)
Pugh et al.,2006 [30] - Age (ref. ≥ 85) 65-69: 1.30 (1.20-1.30)m 1.30(1.10-1.60)w 70-84: 1.10 (1.10-1.10)m 1.00(0.90-1.20)w Unique medications (ref. 1-3) 4-6: 2.20(2.10-2.20)m 2.30(1.90-2.70)w 7-9: 3.80(3.80-3.90)m 4.30(3.70-5.10)w ≥ 10: 8.20(8.00-8.40)m 9.60(8.20-11.20)w
Howard et al., 2004 [25] Female (ref. Male) 1.60 (1.00-2.40) - -
Rigler et al, 2004 [39] Female ** - No. of prescriptions per month **
  1. * Values are OR adjusted (95% CI). Factors for adjustment: Lai (2009): physician characteristics (sex, age, and specialty), and visit characteristics; Pugh (2008): race, mental comorbidities, geriatric care; Bierman (2007): race/ethnicity, psychiatric comorbidity, health care utilization, visits in primary care; Maio (2006): geographic location; income; chronic condition drug group; Pugh (2006): race/ethnicity; psychiatric comorbidity, serious mental illness or other mental health diagnoses, outpatient visits; Howard (2004): education, self-reported health; number of conditions. Rigler (2004): age, race.
  2. m value in men; w value in women
  3. ** Female sex and number of prescription per month were associated with higher levels of inappropriate medication use, p ≤ 0.01.