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Table 4 Effect size and study power analysis of memory performance, global cognitive function and mood in trials of memory strategy training in mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

From: Cognitive and memory training in adults at risk of dementia: A Systematic Review

Citation Design Outcome measure Effect size and 95% confidence Interval ES > .5 or < -.5 Power of study > 1 whole number change in test score Could Type II errors explain lack of significance?
Rapp et al 2002 RCT Word List immediate T1 .33 (-.58, 1.23) No .16 Yes Yes
   Word list immediate T2 -1.18 (-2.24, -.11) Yes .71 No  
   Word list delay T1 .88 (-.07, 1.82) Yes .57 Yes  
   Word list delay T2 -.36 (-1.36, .64) No .16 Yes  
   Paragraph immediateT1 -.03 (-.93, .87) No .05 Yes  
   Paragraph immediate T2 -.54 (- 1.54, .47) Yes .26 Yes  
   Paragraph delay T1 .38 (-.53, 1.29) No .19 Yes  
   Paragraph delay T2 -.14 (-1.13, .85) No .08 Yes  
   Profile of mood states No data     
Belleville et al 2006 NRCT Word list immediate .78 (-.06,1.63) Yes .75 No Yes
   Word list delay .62 (-.22, 1.45) Yes .42 Yes  
   Text immediate .09 (-.73, .91) No .07 Yes  
   Text delay -.42 (-1.25, .41) No .25 No  
   Scale of wellbeing .21 (-.41, .83) No .13 Yes  
Wenisch et al 2007 UCT Story recall immediate -.71 (-1.54, -.11) Yes Single Yes Yes
   Story recall delay .09 (-.71, .89) No group No  
Troyer et al 2008 RCT Word list T1 .23 (-.82, .35) No .18 No No
   Word list T2 -.02 (-.58, .62) No .06 No  
  1. ES: Effect size. Relative ES for RCTs and NRCT, and ES for single intervention group in UCT were calculated by authors of this review as described in the methods analysis
  2. Power analysis calculated by the authors of this review as described in the methods analysis
  3. *Significance of effect size contrast from authors' ES analysis
  4. NRCT: Non-randomised controlled trial
  5. UCT: Uncontrolled trial
  6. T1: Immediate
  7. T2: At follow-up
  8. C1: Control Cholinesterase inhibitor
  9. C2: Control
  10. ADAS-Cog: Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive
  11. NPI: Neuropsychiatry Inventory
  12. MMSE: Mini Mental Status Examination
  13. CVLT: California Verbal Learning Test
  14. RBMT: Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test