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Table 4 Predictive strength of physical frailty indicators on ADL disability

From: Predicting ADL disability in community-dwelling elderly people using physical frailty indicators: a systematic review

Physical frailty indicator Total number of studies Number of studies, only including participants free of disability at baseline, that reported a significant increased risk of ADL disability (Number of cohorts)
++
Number of studies, including both participants free and not free of ADL disability at baseline, that reported a significant increased risk of ADL disability (Number of cohorts)
+
Number of studies reporting no significant increased risk of ADL disability (Number of cohorts)
-
Weight loss 4 4 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Exhaustion 1 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1)
Gait speed 12 9 (6) 3 (3) 0 (0)
Muscle strength 10 4 (2) 3 (3) 3 (3)
Physical activity 9 5 (5) 4 (4) 0 (0)
Balance 6 4 (3) 1 (1) 1 (1)
Others:     
- Lower extremity function 5 4 (4) 1 (1) 0 (0)
- Chair stands 3 2 (2) 1 (1) 0 (0)
- 360° turn, bending over, foot taps, hand signature 1 1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0)
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