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Table 3 Main results of included studies

From: Predicting ADL disability in community-dwelling elderly people using physical frailty indicators: a systematic review

1st Author (year) Study Results
Gill et al. (1995) [35] Each performance test (chair stand, rapid gait, 360° turn, bending over, foot taps, and hand signature) is significantly associated with the onset of functional dependence in ADL disability. Adjusted Risk Ratios (RR) vary from 1.2 (.7-2.0) for foot taps to 2.4 (1.4-4.2) for rapid gait.
Guralnik et al. (1995) [20] Elderly people with lowest lower extremity function have a higher risk of ADL disability compared to elderly people in higher lower extremity function groups. RR 4.2 (2.3-7.7). Elderly people in the moderate group have a higher risk of ADL disability compared to elderly people in the high group. RR 1.6 (1.0-2.6).
Sonn et al. (1995) [37] Walking speed and grip strength at age 70 are significantly associated with incident ADL disability at age 76.
Tinetti et al. (1995) [44] Elderly people with lower usual gait speed, lower rapid gait speed, or lower balance have a higher risk of functional dependence in ADL. OR 2.0 (1.5-2.7), 2.3 (1.7-3.2), and 2.0 (1.5-2.7) respectively.
Gill et al. (1996) [36] Elderly people in the lowest quartile of physical function (measured by walking, turning, chair stands) have a higher risk of functional dependence in ADL. RR 2.1 (1.4-3.0).
Ostir et al. (1998) [18] Elderly people in the lowest quartile of walking speed, balance, and chair stands have a higher risk of ADL disability after a 2-year follow-up compared to elderly people in the highest quartile. OR 5.4 (1.2-23.6), OR 2.4 (1.0-5.4), and OR 2.8 (1.2-6.4) respectively.
Giampaoli et al. (1999) [33] Elderly men with higher hand grip strength have a lower risk of disability compared to men with lower hand grip strength. OR .97 (.96-.99).
Wu et al. (1999) [40] Elderly people who participated regularly in exercise had a lower risk of becoming chronically ADL disabled after a 3-year follow-up. RR .52 (.39-.68).
Guralnik et al. (2000) [19] Elderly people with low lower extremity function have a higher risk of ADL disability compared to elderly people with high lower extremity function. RR ranging from 3.4 (1.7-7.1) to 7.4 (1.8-30.5). Elderly people with moderate lower extremity function have a higher risk of ADL disability compared to elderly people with high lower extremity function. RR ranging from 1.2 (.7-2.2) to 2.0 (.7-5.3). Gait speed alone performed almost as well as total lower extremity function in predicting incident disability.
Ishizaki et al. (2000) [30] Elderly people with higher hand grip strength (1kg) have a lower risk of developing disability in basic ADL within the next 3 years. OR .91 (.84-.97).
Lee (2000) [38] Elderly people who think that they are less active than other people their age have a higher risk of ADL disability compared to people who think that they are a lot more active than other people their age. OR 1.65 (1.14-2.39).
Sarkisian et al. (2000) [39] Elderly people in the lowest quintile of gait speed have a higher risk of decline in basic ADL. OR 2.29 (1.66-3.17). Elderly people in the lowest quintile of exercise level also have a higher risk of basic ADL decline. OR 1.47 (1.06-2.05).
Shinkai et al. (2000) [29] Maximum walking speed, usual walking speed, balance, and grip strength are significant predictors of the onset of functional ADL dependence after a 6-year follow-up in elderly people who are aged 65-74 and 75 or older. For elderly people in the lowest quartile the HR ranged from 2.21 (1.23-3.97) to 6.18 (3.16-12.1).
Stessman et al. (2002) [27] Elderly people who are not physically active or who do not exercise at least four days a week at age 70 have a higher risk of ADL disability after a 7-year follow- up compared to elderly people who are physically active at age 70. OR for men 4.3 (1.1-17.1), OR for women 8.5 (2.0-36.2).
Wang et al. (2002) [45] Elderly persons who exercise regularly have a decreased age-adjusted risk of functional decline in ADL.
Shinkai et al. (2003) [28] Elderly people in the lowest quartile of hand grip strength, balance, usual walking speed or maximal walking speed have a higher risk of disability in basic ADL. HR 1.22 (1.07-1.39), 1.41 (1.22-1.62), 1.31 (1.14-1.50), and 1.40 (1.22-1.61) respectively.
Al Snih et al. (2004) [22] Men and women in the lowest quartile of hand grip strength have a higher risk of ADL limitations in the next 7 years. HR for men 1.9 (1.14-3.17) and HR for women 2.28 (1.59-3.27).
Gill et al. (2004) [25] Slow gait speed is associated significantly with the development of insidious disability. OR 2.4 (1.4-4.1).
Al Snih et al. (2005) [21] Elderly people with weight loss of 5% or more within a 2-year follow-up after baseline have a higher risk of lower body ADL disability compared to elderly people with stable weight. Adjusted OR 1.43 (1.06-1.95).
van den Brink et al. (2005) [34] Compared to the lowest tertile of total physical activity men from the middle and highest tertile have a lower risk of disability. OR .56 (.32-.99) and OR .50 (.29- .88) respectively.
Onder et al. (2005) [42] Balance, chair stands, and walking speed were significant predictors of progressive incident ADL disability. Walking speed was also a significant predictor of catastrophic incident disability.
Jacobs et al. (2008) [26] Elderly people who go out less then daily at age 70 have a higher risk of incident dependence in ADL compared to elderly people who go out daily at age 70. RR 6.9 (1.4-34.0).
Ritchie et al. (2008) [43] A history of unintentional weight loss at baseline predicts more rapid decline in ADL.
Rosano et al. (2008) [31] Gait speed is a significant predictor of disability. HR .88 (.80-.96). This HR remains when controlling for age, sex, race, education, and possible confounders.
Rothman et al. (2008) [23] Slow gait speed, low physical activity and weight loss are significant predictors of chronic incident disability. HR 3.0 (2.3-3.8), HR 2.1 (1.7-2.6), and HR 1.7 (1.4-2.1) respectively. Exhaustion and grip strength do not predict chronic incident disability
Gill et al. (2009) [24] Poor grip strength was associated with 3 subtypes of disability. OR ranging from 1.42 (1.03-1.95) to 1.80 (1.04-3.12). Lower extremity performance score was significantly associated with 5 subtypes of ADL disability. OR ranging from 1.10 (1.04-1.17) to 1.35 (1.24-1.47).
Arnold et al. (2010) [32] Elderly people with weight loss of 5% or more between consecutive annual visits have a higher risk of incident ADL disability compared to elderly people with stable weight. Adjusted OR 1.27 (1.10-1.46).
Balzi et al. (2010) [41] High level of physical activity compared to sedentary state is associated with a lower incidence of ADL disability after a 3-year follow-up. OR .30 (.12-.76). Lower extremity performance score is a significant predictor of disability.
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