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Table 1 Frailty latent classes by gender: cross-sectional correlates and mortality prediction.

From: A Frailty Instrument for primary care: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)

  Females (N= 15,578) Males (N= 12,783)
  Non-frail
(N= 10,420)
Pre-frail
(N= 4,025)
Frail
(N= 1,133)
Pvalue Age-adjusted Pvalue Non-frail
(N= 10,517)
Pre-frail
(N= 1,871)
Frail
(N= 395)
Pvalue Age-adjusted Pvalue
Frailty phenotype: DFactor model
Exhaustion: yes (cp) 0.21 0.51 0.81 <0.001 Ω <0.001 Ω 0.17 0.47 0.80 <0.001 Ω <0.001 Ω
Weight loss: yes (cp) 0.03 0.12 0.39 <0.001 Ω <0.001 Ω 0.03 0.12 0.42 <0.001 Ω <0.001 Ω
Handgrip strength: mean (Kg) 29.4 23.7 17.9 <0.001 Ω <0.001 Ω 45.8 36.2 26.5 <0.001 Ω <0.001 Ω
Slowness: yes (cp) 0.02 0.22 0.84 <0.001 Ω <0.001 Ω 0.01 0.29 0.92 <0.001 Ω <0.001 Ω
Low activity: hardly ever, or never (cp) 0.03 0.17 0.54 <0.001 Ω <0.001 Ω 0.03 0.21 0.62 <0.001 Ω <0.001 Ω
Sociodemographic
Age: mean (SD) 60.5 (9.4) 66.7 (10.9) 73.3 (11.0) <0.001 # - 62.6 (9.0) 69.1 (10.4) 74.0 (10.2) <0.001 # -
Years of education: mean (SD) 10.3 (4.2) 8.2 (4.4) 6.5 (4.4) <0.001 # <0.001 § 10.9 (4.3) 8.6 (4.7) 7.8 (5.0) <0.001 # <0.001 §
Physical
Self-rated health (best:1; worst:5):
mean (SD)
2.7 (1.0) 3.5 (0.9) 4.2 (0.8) <0.001 # <0.001 § 2.7 (1.0) 3.7 (1.0) 4.4 (0.7) <0.001 # <0.001 §
No. chronic diseases: mean (SD) 1.2 (1.2) 2.1 (1.5) 3.1 (1.8) <0.001 # <0.001 § 1.2 (1.2) 2.1 (1.5) 2.9 (1.7) <0.001 # <0.001 §
No. symptoms: mean (SD) 1.2 (1.3) 2.3 (1.8) 3.9 (2.3) <0.001 # <0.001 § 0.9 (1.1) 2.0 (1.7) 3.4 (2.1) <0.001 # <0.001 §
No. contacts with doctor in last year:
mean (SD)
5.0 (7.1) 9.4 (11.4) 15.5 (17.0) <0.001 # <0.001 § 4.9 (7.6) 10.1 (12.4) 17.5 (20.2) <0.001 # <0.001 §
Admitted to hospital in last year (%) 7.9 16.5 30.0 <0.001 χ <0.001 Δ 10.4 23.5 36.7 <0.001 χ <0.001 Δ
Functional
No. limitations with ADLs: mean (SD) 0.0 (0.2) 0.2 (0.7) 1.1 (1.5) <0.001 # <0.001 § 0.0 (0.3) 0.3 (0.9) 1.3 (1.7) <0.001 # <0.001 §
No. limitations with IADLs: mean (SD) 0.1 (0.3) 0.5 (1.0) 1.8 (1.8) <0.001 # <0.001 § 0.1 (0.3) 0.5 (1.1) 1.9 (2.0) <0.001 # <0.001 §
Received home care: personal/nursing (%) 1.9 5.9 18.6 <0.001 χ <0.001 Δ 1.6 6.8 17.2 <0.001 χ <0.001 Δ
Received home care: domestic tasks (%) 1.9 10.3 28.7 <0.001 χ <0.001 Δ 1.0 6.9 19.2 <0.001 χ <0.001 Δ
Psychological and cognitive
EURO-D score (min: 0; max: 12) (SD) 1.9 (1.8) 3.7 (2.4) 5.5 (2.6) <0.001 # <0.001 § 1.4 (1.6) 3.1 (2.3) 5.2 (2.7) <0.001 # <0.001 §
Verbal fluency test score: mean (SD) 20.2 (7.1) 16.5 (6.7) 13.1 (6.0) <0.001 # <0.001 § 20.1 (7.1) 15.9 (6.4) 13.2 (5.7) <0.001 # <0.001 §
Delayed word recall score: mean (SD) 3.9 (2.0) 3.0 (2.0) 1.9 (1.8) <0.001 # <0.001 § 3.4 (1.9) 2.5 (1.8) 1.7 (1.6) <0.001 # <0.001 §
Mortality at Wave 2
% dead 0.7 2.6 9.2 <0.001 χ <0.001 Δ 2.0 8.8 22.6 <0.001 χ <0.001 Δ
OR for mortality (95% CI) 1.0 3.7 (2.5-5.3) 14.2 (9.7-20.8) - - 1.0 4.8 (3.7-6.2) 14.6 (10.3-20.7) - -
Age-adjusted OR for mortality (95% CI) 1.0 2.1 (1.4- 3.0) 4.8 (3.1- 7.4) - - 1.0 3.0 (2.3-4.0) 6.9 (4.7-10.2) - -
  1. cp: conditional probability (from the DFactor model profile output); SD: standard deviation; ADLs: (basic) activities of daily living; IADLs: instrumental activities of daily living; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval. Significant P values (<0.01) are indicated in bold.
  2. Ω Wald statistic; # two-tailed Spearman's rho test; § Partial correlation; χ Chi-squared for trend; Δ ordinal regression.