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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for variables of interest at baseline.

From: Changes in executive functions and self-efficacy are independently associated with improved usual gait speed in older women

Variable * BAT (n = 42)
Mean (SD)
1× RT (n = 47)
Mean (SD)
2× RT (n = 46)
Mean (SD)
Total (N = 135)
Mean (SD)
Age (yr) 69.9 (3.0) 69.5 (2.6) 69.4 (3.0) 69.6 (2.9)
Height (cm) 161.3 (6.9) 161.7 (6.9) 162.2 (6.2) 161.7 (6.6)
Weight (kg) 67.9 (11.0) 70.7 (15.5) 70.0 (14.6) 69.6 (13.9)
Education     
   Less than Grade 9 1.0 (2) 1.0 (1.9) 1.0 (1.9) 3.0 (1.9)
   Grade 9 to 12 without Certificate or Diploma 2.0 (4.1) 3.0 (5.6) 4.0 (7.7) 9.0 (5.8)
   High School Certificate or Diploma 6.0 (12.2) 9.0 (16.7) 10.0 (19.2) 25.0 (16.1)
   Trades or Professional Certificate or Diploma 14.0 (28.6) 10.0 (18.5) 6.0 (11.5) 30.0 (19.4)
   University Certificate or Diploma 7.0 (14.3) 12.0 (22.2) 9.0 (17.3) 28.0 (18.1)
   University Degree 19.0 (38.8) 19.0 (35.2) 22.0 (42.3) 60.0 (38.7)
MMSE Score (max. 30 pts) 28.9 (1.2) 28.5 (1.3) 28.5 (1.5) 28.6 (1.3)
Falls in the Last 12 Months (yes/no) 16 (34) 13 (24.5) 20 (38.5) 49 (32.2)
Geriatric Depression Scale (max. 15 pts) 0.5 (1.9) 0.3 (1.0) 0.9 (2.4) 0.6 (1.8)
Functional Comorbidity Index (max. 18 pts) 2.2 (1.7) 1.8 (1.6) 2.2 (1.5) 2.1 (1.6)
Lawton and Brody (max. 8 pts) 8.0 (0) 8.0 (0.1) 7.9 (0.5) 8.0 (0.3)
Dominant Quadriceps Strength (kg) 27.9 (8.0) 30.4 (6.7) 29.8 (8.3) 29.4 (7.7)
Stroop CW - Stroop C (sec) 44.03 (15.4) 45.71 (24.8) 46.07 (16.0) 45.31 (19.2)
Trail B - Trail A (sec) 44.60 (36.9) 41.36 (26.2) 49.12 (37.7) 45.01 (33.8)
Digit Forward - Digit Backward 3.4 (2.6) 3.4 (2.0) 3.4 (2.4) 3.4 (2.3)
Gait Speed (m/sec) 1.16 (0.2) 1.18 (0.2) 1.16 (0.2) 1.17 (0.2)
ABC Scale Score (%) 85.3 (15.0) 89.4 (12.1) 89.5 (10.7) 88.2 (12.7)
  1. * BAT = Balance and Tone; 1× RT = once-weekly resistance training; 2 × RT = twice-weekly resistance training; yr = year; kg = kilogram; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination; sec = seconds; Stroop CW = Stroop colour-words condition; Stroop C = Stroop coloured-X's condition; m/sec = meters per second; ABC Scale = Activities-specific Balance Confidence.
  2. Count = number of "yes" cases within each group. % = percent of "yes" within each group.