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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies and participants, Ginkgo biloba for dementia

From: Effects of Ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study
Authors, date
Inclusion criteria Setting Duration
(weeks)
Treatment groups Na Drop out rate N (%) Age
Mean (SD)b
Sex
% Female
Baseline cognition  
          Scale (SD) Mean
Kanowski et al. 1996/2003 [29, 36]
All patients
DSM-III-R Alzheimer's or vascular dementia, age > 54 ys, SKT 6-18, MMSE 13-25, no cerebral atrophy, MADRS < 41 Outpatients 24 Ginkgo biloba 240 mg
Placebo
106
99
27 (25)
22 (22)
72 (10)
72 (10)
68
71
SKT 10,5 (3,2)
11,2 (3,3)
Only Alzheimer      79
79
n.a. 72 (10)
72 (10)
71
73
  10,3 (3,1)
10,9 (3,3)
Le Bars et al. 1997/2000 [30, 37]
All patients
DSM-III-R and ICD-10 Alzheimer's or vascular dementia, age > 44 ys, MMSE 9-26, GDS 3-6, no psychiatric comorbidity Outpatients 52 Ginkgo biloba 120 mg
Placebo
155
154
77 (50)
95 (62)
69 (47-89)
69 (45-90)
51
56
ADAS-cog 20,0 (16,0)c
20,5 (14,7)c
Only Alzheimer      120
116
n.a. 68 (47-89)
68 (45-90)
54
62
  19,7 (16,4)
20,2 (15,2)
Maurer et al. 1997 [31] DSM-III-R and NINCDS/ADRDA Alzheimer's or vascular dementia, age 50-80 ys, BCRS 3-5, Hachinski-Ischemia Score ≤ 4, no psychiatric comorbidity. Outpatients 12 Ginkgo biloba 240 mg
Placebo
9
9
1 (10)
1 (10)
68,5 (6,0)
60,6 (8,9)
56
44
ADAS-cog 31,2 (12,6)
36,1 (15,2)
van Dongen et al. 2000 [34, 45] DSM-III-R or ICD-10 Alzheimer's or vascular dementia, or AAMI (clinical diagnosis), age > 49, SKT 8-23, AAMI: MAC-Q ≥ 12 and no dementia (SIDAM), GDS < 11, IQ > 80, no psychiatric comorbidity Nursing home/old age home 24 Ginkgo biloba 160 mg
or 240 mg
Placebo
79
44
14 (18)
4 (9)
83 (n.a.)
83 (n.a.)
86
82
MMSE 18,0 (4,9)
18,7 (4,6)
Schneider et al. 2005 [33] NINCDS/ADRDA probable Alzheimer dementia, age ≥ 60, MMSE 10-24, Hachinski-Ischemia Score ≤ 4, HAM-D < 16, no psychiatric comorbidity Outpatients 26 Ginkgo biloba 240 mg
Ginkgo biloba 120 mg
Placebo
170
169
174
30 (18)
34 (20)
39 (22)
78 (7)
79 (7)
78 (7)
56
50
52
ADAS-cog 24,8 (12,7)
24,7 (11,9)
25,0 (11,1)
Yancheva et al 2009 [35] NINCDS/ADRDA probable Alzheimer dementia, age ≥ 50, Clock-drawing Test Score < 6, SKT 9-23, NPI ≥ 5 Outpatients 22 Ginkgo biloba 240 mg
Donepezil 10 mg
Combination of both
31
32
31
1 (3)
4 (1)
2 (6)
69 (8)
66 (8)
68 (9)
55
84
68
SKT 15,7 (4,7)
17,4 (4,2)
17,4 (4,4)
Napryeyenko et al. 2007 [32, 51]
All patients
NINCDS/ADRDA probable Alzheimer or probable NINDS/AIREN vascular dementia or mixed form, age ≥ 50, Clock-drawing Test Score < 6, SKT 9-23, HAMD17 < 20, NPI ≥ 3, TE4D ≤ 35 Outpatients 22 Ginkgo biloba 240 mg
Placebo
198
197
4 (2)
5 (3)
65 (8)
63 (8)
86
82
SKT 15,6 (3,9)
15,4 (3,7)
Only Alzheimer      104
110
n.a. 66 (8)
64 (8)
67
71
  16,4 (3,8)
15,8 (3,8)
McCarney et al. 2008 [2] DSM-IV dementia, age ≥ 55, MMSE 12-26, presence of a caregiver, Ginkgo biloba was allowed until 2 weeks and cholinesterase inhibitors until 2 months before inclusion Outpatients 24 Ginkgo biloba 120 mg
Placebo
88
88
25 (28)
20 (23)
79,3 (7,8)
79,7 (7,5)
58
64
ADAS-cog 20,4 (8,2)
25,0 (10,3)
Ihl et al. 2009
All patients
NINCDS/ADRDA probable Alzheimer or probable NINDS/AIREN vascular dementia or mixed form, age ≥ 50, Clock-drawing Test Score < 6, SKT 9-23, HAMD17 < 20, NPI ≥ 3, TE4D ≤ 35 Outpatients 24 Ginkgo biloba 240 mg
Placebo
202
202
16 (8)
12 (6)
65 (10)
65 (9)
69
66
SKT 16,7 (3,9)
17,2 (3,7)
Only Alzheimer      163
170
  65 (10)
64 (9)
67
65
  16,4 (3,8)
17,0 (3,8)
  1. a: N includes all patients randomized that completed at least one post-treatment evaluation; b: SD = standard deviation (one number) or range (two numbers).
  2. ADAS-cog = Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale (0-70); AAMI = age-associated memory impairment; BCRS = Brief Cognitive Rating Scale; GDS = Global Deterioration Scale; MAC-Q = Memory Assessment Clinical Questionnaire; MMSE = Mini Mental State Examination (0-30); n.a. = not available; SIDAM = Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia of the Alzheimer Type; SKT = Syndrom Kurz-Test (0-27), TE4D = Test for Early Detection of Dementia with Discrimination from Depression (ranges of the scale score in brackets, the underlined numbers indicate highest symptom load or disturbance).
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