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Table 1 Description of study population differenciated by utilization of nursing care (N = 1549)

From: Individual characteristics associated with the utilization of nursing care in the very old population: a cross-sectional study

Variable Total NoNCU OdpNCU InpNCU
Total: weighted/unweighted 1549/1531 (100%/100%) 1083/1051 (69.9%/68.6%) 339/381 (21.9%/24.8%) 127/100 (8.2%/6.5%)
Age (years), mean (SD) 84.8 (4.0) 84.0 (3.4) 86.0 (4.1) 88.3 (5.0)
Sex
 male 575 (37.1%) 451 (41.6%) 107 (31.5%) 17 (13.5%)
 female 974 (62.9%) 632 (58.4%) 233 (68.5%) 109 (86.5%)
Socioeconomic statusa, mean (SD) 41.5 (20.7) 43.8 (20.9) 37.1 (20.0) 33.6 (16.7)
Migration background
 no 1189 (76.7%) 832 (76.8%) 263 (77.4%) 94 (74.6%)
 yes 360 (23.3%) 251 (23.2%) 77 (22.6%) 32 (25.4%)
Community type
 5000 to 49,999 207 (13.4%) 139 (12.8%) 58 (17.1%) 10 (7.9%)
 50,000 to 99,999 207 (13.4%) 137 (12.7%) 44 (12.9%) 26 (20.5%)
 100,000 to 499,999 527 (34.0%) 363 (33.5%) 126 (37.1%) 38 (30.1%)
  ≥ 500,000 607 (39.2%) 443 (40.9%) 112 (32.9%) 52 (41.5%)
Children
 no 178 (11.5%) 127 (11.7%) 27 (8.0%) 24 (19.0%)
 yes 1371 (88.5%) 956 (88.3%) 313 (92.0%) 102 (81.0%)
Partnership status
 no partnership 901 (58.2%) 553 (51.0%) 240 (70.8%) 108 (85.7%)
 in a partnership 647 (41.8%) 530 (49.0%) 99 (29.2%) 18 (14.3%)
Social isolation
 no 1213 (78.4%) 865 (79.9%) 283 (83.4%) 65 (51.8%)
 yes 335 (21.6%) 218 (20.1%) 56 (16.6%) 61 (48.2%)
Loneliness
 never/rarely 1471 (95.0%) 1051 (97.0%) 308 (90.9%) 112 (88.1%)
 mostly/always 78 (5.0%) 32 (3.0%) 31 (9.1%) 15 (11.9%)
Time spent with others
 never/rarely 225 (14.5%) 150 (13.9%) 61 (18.0%) 14 (11.3%)
 sometimes 393 (25.3%) 257 (23.7%) 98 (28.9%) 37 (29.6%)
 often/very often 931 (60.1%) 676 (62.4%) 181 (53.1%) 75 (59.1%)
Self-rated health status, mean (SD) (1 = very poor; 4 = very good) 2.7 (0.8) 2.7 (0.7) 2.4 (0.8) 2.7 (0.8)
Basic activities of daily living, mean (SD) (0 = not possible without help; 2 = no help needed) 1.7 (0.4) 1.9 (0.2) 1.3 (0.5) 1.2 (0.6)
Instrumental activities of daily, living, mean (SD) (0 = not possible without help; 2 = no help needed) 1.5 (0.6) 1.8 (0.3) 1.0 (0.5) 0.7 (0.6)
≥5 chronical conditions
 no 1110 (71.7%) 829 (76.5%) 185 (54.7%) 96 (75.6%)
 yes 438 (28.3%) 254 (23.5%) 154 (45.3%) 31 (24.4%)
Physical frailty
 robust 383 (24.8%) 347 (32.1%) 18 (5.3%) 18 (14.2%)
 pre-frail 884 (57.0%) 624 (57.6%) 196 (57.7%) 65 (51.2%)
 frail 281 (18.1%) 111 (10.3%) 126 (37.0%) 44 (34.6%)
Dementia (DemTect), mean (SD) (0 = dementia; 2 = no cognitive impairment) 1.6 (0.7) 1.8 (0.5) 1.4 (0.8) 0.9 (0.9)
  1. Weighted data
  2. NoNCU no nursing care use, odpNCU outpatient, day, and/or private nursing care use, inpNCU inpatient nursing care usem, SD standard deviation. When values differed among the imputed datasets, average values were reported. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  3. aBased on Ganzeboom and Treiman [26], a value of 42 represents professions such as firefighters or aircraft engine mechanics; 44, general managers of restaurants and hotels (small enterprises); 37, market salespersons or bookbinders; and 34, heavy truck drivers or waiters/waitresses