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Table 1 Main characteristics of the study population (N = 753)

From: Risk factors of frailty and functional disability in community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the FREEDOM-LNA cohort study

Characteristics   N (%)
Age Mean ± SD 83.1 ± 5.8
Sex Male
Female
244 (32.4)
509 (67.6)
Educationa Low
Medium
High
451 (60.0)
127 (16.9)
174 (23.1)
Living arrangement Living alone 405 (53.9)
Cardiovascular morbidities Hypertension
Dyslipidaemia
Obesity
Diabetes
Smoking
Alcohol
548/735 (74.6)
363/733 (49.5)
197/729 (27.0)
151/732 (20.6)
100/731 (13.7)
28/732 (3.8)
Polymedication ≥ 5 medications / day 599/738 (81.2)
Nutritional status (MNA) Mean ± SD 24.2 ± 3.7
Functional status ADL
IADL
5.3 ± 0.9
5.7 ± 2.0
SMAF -17.3 ± 11.6
Depressive symptoms GDS > 9 302/634 (47.6)
Cognitive deficit MMSE < 24 245/712 (34.4)
FRIED criteria Weight loss
Low energy/exhaustion
Low grip strength
Low walking speed
Low physical activity
82 (10.9)
142 (18.9)
603 (80.1)
240 (31.9)
418 (55.5)
Frailty Frail
Pre-frail
Robust
240 (31.9)
439 (58.3)
74 (9.8)
  1. Low: primary certificate level; Medium: Middle school, High: Secondary or high school