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Table 2 Changes in functional independence and key outcomes over the 8-week wait-list period

From: Promoting independence in Lewy body dementia through exercise: the PRIDE study

  n Baseline
Median (range)
Pre—Intervention Median (range) Wa Sig Median change score (95% Hodges-Lehmann CI)
Functional Independence
MDS-UPDRS total /260 9 86 (57–169) 106 (45–180) 1.995 0.051 13 (-1, 34.5)
 Exercise completersa 6 62 (57–169) 78.5 (45–180) 1.363 0.173 6.5 (-10, 19.5)
 Part I/II sub-score /104 9 36 (16–75) 38 (13–84) 1.897 0.058 6 (-0.5, 14)
 Part III sub-score /132 9 46 (33–82) 55 (32–95) 1.186 0.236 5.5 (-6.5, 17.5)
 Part IV /24 9 0 (0–12) 2 (0–8) 0.841 0.4 0.5 (-1.5, 3)
FIM total score /126 9 102 (30–122) 100 (25–121) -0.889 0.374 -3 (-11, 9)
Strength & Physical Function
Leg press 1RM, N 6 1375 (355–3100) 1200 (830–3000) -1.682 0.093 -150 (-373, 40)
Leg extension 1RM, N·m 6 240 (35–550) 180 (120–570) -1.572 0.116 -65 (-150, 35)
Triceps extension 1RM, N 6 450 (150–850) 470 (100–800) -0.946 0.344 -45 (-200, 40)
SPPB total score, /12 9 7 (1–12) 7 (0–12) -2.414 0.016 -1.5 (-2.5, -0.5)
 Sub-scores:
 Balance, /4   4 (0–4) 2 (0–4) -1.414 0.157 0 (-1, 0)
 Gait, /4   3 (1 -4) 2 (0–4) -1.134 0.257 -0.5 (-1, 0.5)
 Sit-to-stand, /4   2 (0–4) 1 (0–4) -1.633 0.102 -1 (-2, 0)
Habitual gait speed, ms−1 7 0.69 (.11–1.01) 0.75 (0.42–1.09) -0.169 0.866 -0.1 (-0.19, 0.13)
Maximal gait speed, ms−1 7 1.41 (0.75–2.03) 1.21 (0.94–2.38) -0.338 0.735 -0.03 (-0.37, 0.29)
Five time sit-to-stand, s 7 13.8 (8.1–33.7) 11.5 (8.09–28.3) -0.169 0.866 -0.2 (-3.8, 3.3)
Total balance time, s 9 60.84 (0.0–75.91) 47.72 (0.0–83.43) -1.183 0.237 -1.9 (-22.5, 8.7)
Average grip strength, kg 8 25.5 (12.5–40.0) 23.75 (7–41.50) -0.17 0.865 0 (-3.75, 2.75)
Six-minute walk, m 8 358 (57–718) 353 (0–727) -0.7 0.484 -14 (-115, 44)
Physical activity
Total daily activity, g/hr 9 120.1 (45.4–262.7) 91.0 (34.7–186.6) -2.429 0.015 -20.9 (-48.4, -7.2)
 Proportion of day, %   10.81 (7.81–20.29) 9.56 (1.67–17.2) -2.31 0.021 -2.56 (-4.90, -0.56)
Daily walking time, mins   46.8 (7.2–172.2) 34.8 (4.8–139.2) -2.666 0.008 -16.4 (-29.9. -4.0)
 Proportion of day, %   3.25 (0.49–11.94) 2.43 (0.33–9.68) -2.666 0.008 -1.1 (-2.08, -0.28)
Step count, n   4158 (567–12,511) 2710 (400–9327) -2.31 0.021 -998 (-2200, -113)
Total bouts of walking, n   139 (35–377) 113 (21–317) -2.433 0.015 -26 (-57, -4)
Bout lengths
 5 to 10 s, n   66 (21–180) 53 (13–173) -2.106 0.044 -9 (-18.25, 0.00)
 10 to 20 s, n   47 (12–106) 40 (6–79) -2.138 0.033 -9 (-17.5, -0.50)
 20 to 30 s, n   17 (2–27) 10 (2–28) -1.606 0.108 -2.5 (-5.5, 0.5)
 30 to 60 s, n   13 (0–39) 8 (0–23) -2.136 0.033 -4.5 (-9.5, 0)
 60 to 120 s, n   3 (0–14) 1 (0–11) -1.807 0.071 -1.5 (-2.5, 0)
  ≥ 120 s, n   1 (0–11) 0 (0–6) -1.89 0.059 -0.5 (-2.5, 0)
Cognition
PD-CRS total score /134 9 44 (7–83) 42 (10 -77) -0.422 0.673 -1 (-6, 3)
 Posterior-cortical /30   26 (1–28) 26 (4–29) 0.647 0.518 0.5 (-0.5, 2)
 Fronto-cortical /104   18 (1 -55) 17 (6–48) -0.831 0.406 -1.5 (-5, 2)
MMSE total score /30 9 22 (5–29) 17 (3–26) -1.916 0.055 -3 (-4, 0)
  1. Significance values where α < 0.05 are bolded. MDS-UPDRS Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale [21]. Total score includes parts I-IV, Part III is the assessor rated motor score. a Exercise completers includes only the scores of participants who completed the subsequent exercise intervention as per protocol for analysis of the primary outcome. All values a presented as median (range). Higher scores in the MDS-UPDRS; and lower scores on the FIM, MMSE, and PD-CRS indicate worse performance on that measure respectively. 1RM One repetition maximum lift, FIM Functional independence measure [25], MMSE Mini-mental state exam [26], PD-CRS Parkinson’s disease Cognitive rating scale [27], SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery [34], kg kilogram, kgm−1 kg/metre, s second, cm centimeter, N Newton, N·m Newton metre.a W Wilcoxon Signed Rank standardized test statistic