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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Promoting independence in Lewy body dementia through exercise: the PRIDE study

  n = 9  
Age (years) 74 (66–84)
Sex (male), n 7  
Ethnicity (Caucasian), n 8  
Body Mass Index (BMI), kgm−2 24.9 (21.0–26.3)
Diagnosis (PDD/DLB), n 5 / 4  
Time since diagnosisa, months 12 (3–48)
 Visits required for diagnosisb, n 3 (1–7)
MDS-UPDRS total score, /260 86 (57–169)
 Part III motor—sub score, /132 46 (33–82)
Clinical dementia rating (CDR) scorec, /3
 Mild (1), n 5  
 Moderate (2), n 2  
 Severe (3), n 2  
FIM total score, /126 102 (30–122)
MMSE total score, /30 22 (5–29)
PD-CRS total score, /134 44 (7–83)
GDS–15 total score, /15 1 (0–3*)
Reported falls in prior yeard, n 2 (0–20)
 Injurious falls requiring hospitalization e, n 5  
 Recurrent fallers (≥ 2 falls in last year) f, n 6  
Diagnosed comorbidities g, n 5  
Prescribed medications h, n 5  
Participants with:
  ≥ 5 medications prescribed (polypharmacy), n 6  
 Anticholinergic Burden (ACB) score ≥ 3, n 2  
 Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs), n 5  
Medication class (number of participants taking ≥ 1 medication in each class)
 Dopaminergic, n 7 Anti-platelet, Anti-coagulant, n 3
 Neuroleptic, n 2 Statins, n 3
 Sedative/Tranquilizer, n 2 Blood pressure regulating, n 4
 Antidepressant, n 4 PPI, n 2
 AChEI, /NMDA receptor agonist, n 5 Supplements, n 4
  1. All values a presented as median (range) or as n participants satisfying criteria. Higher scores in the MDS-UPDRS, CDR, GDS-15 and ACB; and lower scores on the FIM, MMSE, and PD-CRS indicate worse performance on that measure respectively. PDD Parkinson’s disease dementia, DLB Dementia with Lewy bodies, MDS-UPDRS Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. (21) Total score includes parts I-IV, Part III is the assessor rated motor score, FIM Functional independence measure [25], MMSE Mini-mental state exam [26], PD-CRS Parkinson’s disease Cognitive rating scale [27], GDS-15 Geriatric Depression Scale – 15 item [28], AChEI/NMDA Acetyl-cholinesterase Inhibitor/ N-methyl-D-aspartate, PPI Proton Pump Inhibitor. a denotes the months since the participants received a formal diagnosis of LBD. b denotes the number of healthcare visits required to reach a formal diagnosis of LBD. c The CDR algorithm score (0–3) is derived from a sum score (0–18) [29] d denotes the median number of reported falls per participants. e Accumulative total of falls resulting in injury and subsequent medical treatment across the cohort. f Number of participants who had two or more falls in previous 12 months. g previously diagnosed conditions and conditions identified within physician screen at baseline assessment. h Number of medications including prescribed supplements. Polypharmacy is defined as ≥ 5 prescribed medications. ACB is a scale assessing the combined Anticholinergic risk from various medications, whereby the score is the added total of all medications with possible (1 point), or definite (2–3 points) anticholinergic side effects [30]