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Table 2 Baseline and hospitalization characteristics for patients with and without 30-day readmission

From: Depressive symptoms and malnutrition are associated with other geriatric syndromes and increase risk for 30-Day readmission in hospitalized older adults: a prospective cohort study

  Readmission (N = 331) No readmission (N = 1176) p value
Socio-demographics    
Age 77.0 (8.2) 76.1 (7.7) 0.068
Gender (Female) 159 (48.0%) 606 (51.5%) 0.261
Ethnicity (Chinese) 256 (77.3%) 960 (81.6%) 0.116
Living alone 12 (3.5%) 60 (5.2%) 0.308
Admission diagnoses (top 3)    
Sepsis 110 (33.2%) 354 (30.1%) < 0.001
Fluid overload/ ACS 30 (9.1%) 43 (3.6%)  
Geriatric syndromea 42 (12.7%) 193 (16.4%)  
Severity of Illness Index    
Level 1/2 196 (59.3%) 751 (64.0%) 0.144
Level 3 134 (40.6%) 422 (36.0%)  
Length of stay (days) 6.6 (5.4) 5.6 (4.4) < 0.001
Caregiver burden (N = 223)    
  High strain 64 (42.4%) 31 (43.1%) 0.909
Comorbidity Burden    
Previous admission 1 yr 206 (62.2%) 512 (43.5%) < 0.001
Charlson’s Comorbidity Index    < 0.001
  Low 38 (11.5%) 281 (23.9%)  
  Medium 128 (38.7%) 524 (44.6%)  
  High 86 (26.0%) 231 (20.0%)  
  Very high 79 (24.0%) 136 (11.6%)  
Polypharmacy 204 (62.2%) 550 (47.5%) < 0.001
Baseline risk factors    
Clinical Frailty Scale    < 0.001
  Non-frail (CFS 1–4) 68 (20.5%) 333 (28.3%)  
  Mild frailty (CFS 5) 148 (44.7%) 565 (48.0%)  
  Moderate frailty (CFS 6) 58 (17.5%) 165 (4.0%)  
  Severe frailty (CFS 7/8) 57 (17.2%) 113 (9.6%)  
Depressive symptoms    < 0.001
  PHQ2- / History - 195 (58.9%) 834 (71.0%)  
  PHQ2- / History + 9 (2.7%) 31 (2.6%)  
  PHQ2+ / History ± 86 (26.0%) 238 (20.3%)  
  Uncommunicative 41 (12.4%) 71 (6.1%)  
Malnutrition 57 (17.4%) 133 (11.7%) 0.007
Cognitive impairment 112 (35.1%) 328 (28.6%) 0.025
Geriatric syndromes during admission    
Delirium (include subsyndromal) 47 (14.2%) 120 (10.2%) 0.040
Functional decline at discharge 66 (20.3%) 119 (10.1%) < 0.001
Poor oral intake 127 (38.7%) 257 (22.2%) < 0.001
  1. ACS Acute coronary syndrome, PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire
  2. aAny record of falls, delirium, cognitive impairment or functional decline in the admission diagnosis