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Table 2 Association between sensory impairment status and all-cause mortality

From: Association between dual sensory impairment and risk of mortality: a cohort study from the UK Biobank

Sensory Impairment status Age- and gender-adjusted model Multivariable modela Number of deceased participants Person-year of deceased participants
HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Main analysis
  NSI 1[Reference]   1[Reference]   4,579 3.86 × 108
  VI-only 1.33 (1.16–1.52)  < 0.001 1.26 (1.07–1.48) 0.005 213 1.18 × 107
  HI-only 1.33 (1.24–1.42)  < 0.001 1.23 (1.14–1.33)  < 0.001 1,124 5.34 × 107
  DSI 1.59 (1.27–2.00)  < 0.001 1.44 (1.11–1.88) 0.007 76 2.84 × 106
Sensitivity analysisb
  NSI 1[Reference]   1[Reference]   3,707 3.56 × 108
  VI-only 1.34 (1.15–1.56)  < 0.001 1.20 (1.00–1.44) 0.051 169 1.08 × 107
  HI-only 1.42 (1.32–1.52)  < 0.001 1.25 (1.15–1.36)  < 0.001 900 4.87 × 107
  DSI 1.79 (1.39–2.29)  < 0.001 1.54 (1.15–2.06) 0.004 63 2.59 × 106
Sensitivity analysisc
  NSI 1[Reference]   1[Reference]   4,434 3.85 × 108
  VI-only 1.37 (1.19–1.57)  < 0.001 1.26 (1.07–1.48) 0.006 206 1.18 × 107
  HI-only 1.42 (1.33–1.52)  < 0.001 1.24 (1.15–1.34)  < 0.001 1,094 5.34 × 107
  DSI 1.68 (1.33–2.12)  < 0.001 1.43 (1.09–1.88) 0.009 71 2.84 × 106
Sensitivity analysisd
  NSI 1[Reference]   1[Reference]   4,190 3.84 × 108
  VI-only 1.38 (1.20–1.60)  < 0.001 1.26 (1.07–1.49) 0.006 197 1.18 × 107
  HI-only 1.42 (1.33–1.52)  < 0.001 1.25 (1.15–1.35)  < 0.001 1,034 5.34 × 107
  DSI 1.62 (1.27–2.07)  < 0.001 1.38 (1.04–1.83) 0.026 65 2.84 × 106
  1. Abbreviations: NSI Neither sensory impairment, VI Visual impairment, HI Hearing impairment, DSI Dual-sensory impairment, HR Hazard ratio, CI Confidence interval
  2. a Adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, Townsend index, obesity, smoking status, physical activity, history of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, and overall health status
  3. b Participants with history of cancer at the baseline assessment were excluded
  4. c Deaths recorded within one year after the baseline assessment were excluded
  5. d Deaths recorded within two years after the baseline assessment were excluded