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Table 2 Linear regression model of year-4 physical component score among males (n = 1542)

From: The effect of subjective social status on health-related quality of life decline in urban Chinese older adults: a four-year longitudinal study from Hong Kong

  Bivariable model (PCS baseline) SSS-Society model SSS-Community model
Factors B Coeff (95% CI) p-value B Coeff (95% CI) Std. Coeff p-value B Coeff (95% CI) Std. Coeff p-value
SSS-Society 0.11 (− 0.08, 0.31) 0.260 0.09 (− 0.11, 0.29) 0.02 0.389
SSS-Community 0.23 (0.07, 0.40) 0.006 0.24 (0.07, 0.40) 0.07 0.005
Baseline PCS 0.42 (0.37, 0.47) < 0.001 0.38 (0.33, 0.43) 0.35 < 0.001 0.37 (0.32, 0.42) 0.35 < 0.001
Demographics
 Age −0.12 (− 0.19, − 0.04) 0.002 − 0.03 (− 0.11, 0.05) −0.02 0.442 −0.04 (− 0.12, 0.04) −0.02 0.326
 Education   0.098    0.508    0.523
  No schooling 1.00   1.00    1.00   
  At least some primary school 0.53 (− 1.16, 2.22)   0.22 (− 1.45, 1.90) 0.02   0.08 (− 1.60, 1.76) 0.01  
  At least some secondary school 1.42 (−0.33, 3.18)   0.84 (− 0.91, 2.58) 0.05   0.69 (− 1.06, 2.44) 0.04  
  At least some university/ college 1.28 (−0.58, 3.14)   0.44 (− 1.44, 2.31) 0.02   0.21 (−1.66, 2.08) 0.01  
  Currently married −0.73 (− 1.89, 0.44) 0.220
Well-being factors
 PASE Score (<IQR) − 1.49 (− 2.30, − 0.69) < 0.001 − 1.17 (− 1.98, − 0.36) −0.07 0.005 − 1.23 (− 2.04, − 0.43) −0.07 0.003
 Currently living alone −0.49 (− 1.95, 0.98) 0.514
Medical history
 Diabetes −0.51 (− 1.53, 0.51) 0.325
 Hyperthyroidism −2.35 (− 5.25, 0.56) 0.114 − 2.15 (− 5.03, 0.72) −0.03 0.142 − 2.12 (− 4.99, 0.75) − 0.03 0.147
 Hypothyroidism 1.07 (− 2.94, 5.08) 0.601
Osteoporosis 0.70 (− 1.42, 2.83) 0.516
 History of stroke − 1.58 (− 3.29, 0.13) 0.070 −0.48 (− 2.19, 1.23) −0.01 0.584 −0.60 (− 2.31, 1.10) −0.02 0.488
 Hypertension − 1.37 (− 2.08, − 0.66) < 0.001 −1.15 (− 1.86, − 0.44) −0.07 0.002 −1.14 (− 1.85, − 0.43) −0.07 0.002
 CVD conditions −0.66 (− 1.59, 0.27) 0.161 − 0.19 (− 1.12, 0.75) −0.01 0.697 −0.18 (− 1.11, 0.75) −0.01 0.701
 COPD −0.97 -2.16, 0.21) 0.108 −0.75 (− 1.92, 0.42) − 0.03 0.211 − 0.78 (− 1.95, 0.39) −0.03 0.190
 Current alcohol use 0.57 (−0.26, 1.38) 0.177 0.14 (− 0.68, 0.96) 0.01 0.734 0.17 (−0.65, 0.99) 0.01 0.688
 Ever smoked −0.00 (− 0.73, 0.73) 0.996
 History of starvation −0.15 (− 0.89, 0.59) 0.692
 BMI > = 30 −0.01 (− 2.48, 2.47) 0.995
 Walking speed (m/sec) 5.55 (3.94, 7.17) < 0.001 4.86 (3.18, 6.55) 0.14 < 0.001 4.72 (3.06, 6.39) 0.14 < 0.001
  1. SSS Subjective social status, MCS Mental Component Score, PASE Physical Activity Scale for Elderly, IQR Interquartile range, CVD Cardiovascular diseases, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, BMI Body mass index. Values in bold represent those variables retained in the final model. Values not bolded but shown in the final model column represent their value before being removed from the model
  2. SSS-Society: VIF range 1.015 to 1.116, R square 0.187
  3. SSS-Community: VIF range 1.016 to 1.115, R square 0.190