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Table 1 Baseline background information of the study sample

From: The effect of subjective social status on health-related quality of life decline in urban Chinese older adults: a four-year longitudinal study from Hong Kong

Variables Male (n = 1542)
% (n)
Female
(n = 1392)
% (n)
p-value All
(n = 2934)
% (n)
Demographic & background attributes
 Age    0.214  
  65–74 years old 74.5% (1149) 72.5% (1009)   73.6% (2158)
  75+ years old 25.5% (393) 27.5% (383)   26.4% (776)
 Educational level    < 0.001  
  No Schooling 4.7% (73) 30.0% (418)   16.7% (491)
  At least some primary school 53.6% (827) 49.9% (694)   51.8% (1521)
  At least some secondary school 26.9% (415) 13.1% (182)   20.3% (597)
  At least some university/college 14.7% (227) 7.0% (98)   11.1% (325)
 Marital Status    < 0.001  
  Currently married 89.8% (1384) 55.4% (793)   74.2% (2177)
  Never married 1.6% (24) 2.0% (28)   1.8% (52)
  Divorced/Separated 1.8% (29) 2.9% (40)   2.3% (69)
  Widowed 6.8% (105) 38.1% (531)   21.7% (636)
 Currently living alone 6.2% (95) 19.0% (265) < 0.001 12.3% (360)
 Lifetime ever smoker 62.1% (958) 8.7% (121) < 0.001 36.8% (1079)
 Currently consumes alcohol 24.6% (379) 2.8% (39) < 0.001 14.3% (418)
 History of starvation in lifetime 61.4% (908) 55.9% (711) 0.004 58.9% (1619)
 Body mass index Mean (SD) 23.5 (3.0) 23.9 (3.3) 0.003 23.7 (3.2)
Health Conditions
 Diabetes 13.9% (215) 13.1% (183) 0.529 13.6% (398)
 Hyperthyroidism 1.5% (23) 4.9% (68) < 0.001 3.1% (91)
 Hypothyroidism 0.8% (12) 2.4% (46) < 0.001 1.6% (46)
 Osteoporosis 2.9% (44) 8.5% (118) < 0.001 5.5% (162)
 History of stroke 4.5% (69) 3.2% (45) 0.082 3.9% (114)
 Hypertension (Systolic BP > 140, diastolic BP > 90) 41.4% (638) 43.9% (611) 0.168 42.6% (1249)
 CVD Conditions a 17.6% (272) 16.6% (231) 0.453 17.1% (503)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 9.9% (153) 4.7% (66) < 0.001 7.5% (219)
Baseline instruments scale scores Mean (SD)
 Physical Activity Scale for Elderly (PASE) b 100.0 (50.8) 87.6 (33.8) 0.023 94.6 (44.1)
 SF-12 Physical Functioning Score c 51.1 (7.1) 47.2 (8.6) < 0.001 49.2 (8.1)
 SF-12 Mental Functioning Score c 56.1 (6.5) 55.3 (7.5) 0.003 55.7 (7.0)
 SSS-Society d 4.5 (1.8) 4.7 (1.8) 0.014 4.6 (1.8)
 SSS-Community d 6.4 (2.2) 7.3 (2.0) < 0.001 6.8 (2.2)
Year 4 instruments scale scores Mean(SD)
 SF-12 Physical Functioning Score c 50.0 (7.7) 46.2 (9.5) < 0.001 48.2 (8.8)
 SF-12 Mental Functioning Score c 57.3 (6.4) 56.5 (8.4) 0.003 56.9 (7.4)
  1. x2 p values are shown for categorical variables while t-test p values are shown for continuous variables. a CVD (cardiovascular diseases) conditions (congestive heart failure, angina, myocardial infarction). b PASE Score (scores range from 0 to 793). c SF-12 Physical Functioning Score and SF-12 Mental Functioning Score (scores range from 0 to 100 with higher score reflecting better functioning). d SSS, subjective social status; SSS-Society & SSS-Community (scores range from 1 to 10)