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Table 2 Association of hearing loss with GDS-15 scores and depressive symptoms

From: Hearing loss and depressive symptoms in older Chinese: whether social isolation plays a role

Hearing status Crude model Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  Outcome = GDS scores, β (95% CI)
Good Ref (0.00) Ref (0.00) Ref (0.00) Ref (0.00)
Fair 0.74 (0.63, 0.85)*** 0.67 (0.56, 0.78)*** 0.59 (0.48, 0.69)*** 0.58 (0.47, 0.68)***
Poor 1.22 (1.02, 1.42)*** 1.01 (0.80, 1.21)*** 0.74 (0.54, 0.94)*** 0.69 (0.50, 0.89)***
  Outcome = Depressive symptoms, OR (95% CI)
Good Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00) Ref (1.00)
Fair 1.89 (1.61, 2.21)*** 1.79 (1.52, 2.10)*** 1.68 (1.43, 1.99)*** 1.66 (1.41, 1.97)***
Poor 3.16 (2.50, 4.00)*** 2.64 (2.07, 3.38)*** 2.13 (1.65,2.74)*** 2.05 (1.59, 2.64)***
  1. Ref Reference, CI Confidence interval, GDS-15 the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, OR Odds ratio
  2. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, income, education, occupation, smoking, alcohol use
  3. Model 2: additionally adjusted for self-rated health, comorbidities
  4. Model 3: additionally adjusted for social isolation
  5. ***P < 0.001