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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by hearing status

From: Hearing loss and depressive symptoms in older Chinese: whether social isolation plays a role

  All Hearing status P value
Good Fair Poor
Number of participants (%) 8,962 2,256 (25.2) 6,094 (68.0) 612 (6.8) -
Age, years, mean (SD) 60.2 (7.8) 58.3 (7.1) 60.3 (7.6) 65.9 (8.9)  < 0.001
Age group, years, %    < 0.001
 50–59 54.6 65.6 53.1 28.4  
 60–69 30.5 25.0 32.2 33.3  
 ≥ 70 15.0 9.4 14.7 38.2  
Sex, %    < 0.001
 Women 74.3 77.1 74.3 63.6  
 Men 25.8 22.9 25.8 36.4  
Occupation, %    < 0.001
 Manual 62.4 58.1 63.1 70.9  
 Non-manual 20.8 22.2 20.9 14.9  
 Other 16.8 19.7 16.0 14.2  
Education, %    < 0.001
 ≤ Primary 38.1 29.3 39.6 55.2  
 Middle school 53.6 61.0 52.5 37.6  
 ≥ College 8.3 9.8 7.9 7.2  
Family income, CNY/year, %    < 0.001
 < 10,000 5.5 4.1 5.4 11.0  
 10,000–29,999 30.8 30.4 30.7 33.5  
 30,000–49,999 25.7 31.7 24.3 17.4  
 ≥ 50,000 22.0 23.8 22.2 14.2  
 Not know 16.1 10.0 17.5 24.0  
Smoking status, %    < 0.001
 Never 81.8 83.3 82.0 74.4  
 Former 7.8 6.8 7.8 11.8  
 Current 10.3 9.8 10.2 13.9  
Alcohol use, %   0.01
 Never 54.0 51.1 54.8 56.5  
 Former 5.4 5.3 5.3 6.4  
 Current 40.7 43.8 39.9 37.1  
Self-rated health, %    < 0.001
 Good/ very good 78.5 84.1 77.9 63.9  
 Poor /very poor 21.5 15.9 22.1 36.1  
Comorbidities, %   0.01
 No 88.9 90.3 88.8 85.6  
 Yes 11.1 9.7 11.2 14.4  
Social isolation, %    < 0.001
 No 66.7 72.0 66.1 53.4  
 Yes 33.3 28.0 33.9 46.6  
GDS-15 score, median (IQR) 2.0 (2.0) 1.0 (3.0) 2.0 (3.0) 2.0 (3.0)  < 0.001
Depressive symptoms, %    < 0.001
 No 85.3 90.9 84.1 76.0  
 Yes 14.7 9.1 15.9 24.0  
  1. SD Standard deviation, CNY Chinese Yuan, GDS-15 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, IQR Interquartile rang