Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline demographics and characteristics according to dentition status

From: Association between dentition and frailty and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults

  All
N = 1047
Natural teeth, no dentures
224 (21.3%)
Denture-wearing, with / without natural teeth)
740 (70.7%)
No Teeth
83 (7.9%)
p value
Age (mean) 71.2 ± 5.5 70.3 ± 4.92 71.3 ± 5.43 72.9 ± 6.82 3 0.001
Gender
 Male 448 (42.8) 121 (54.0) 290 (39.2) 37 (44.6) < 0.001
 Female 599 (57.2) 103 (46.0) 450 (60.8) 46 (55.4)
Education (years) 6.0 ± 4.4 7.7 ± 4.6 5.8 ± 4.3 3.3 ± 3.6 < 0.001
MMSE 26.2 ± 4.4 26.6 ± 4.52 26.2 ± 4.23 24.5 ± 5.42 3 0.001
Cognitive Impairmenta 117 (11.2) 14 (6.3)1 2 87 (11.8)1 3 16 (19.3)2 3  
EQ-VAS 80.2 ± 15.6 81.3 ± 15.32 80.3 ± 15.03 75.8 ± 20.62 3 0.019
Grip strength (kg) 21.8 ± 7.0 23.3 ± 7.21 21.4 ± 6.91 21.6 ± 5.7 0.004
TUG, completion time 11.3 ± 4.0 11.1 ± 3.7 11.3 ± 4.0 12.5 ± 4.7 0.109
BMI 24.4 ± 4.1 24.8 ± 4.5 24.3 ± 3.9 24.4 ± 4.3 0.283
Waist circumference 87.2 ± 10.8 87.8 ± 11.9 86.9 ± 10.2 89.0 ± 12.8 0.327
Multimorbidity 552 (52.7) 113 (50.4) 395 (53.4) 44 (53.0)  
Ethnicity
 Chinese 837 (79.9) 134 (16.0) 644 (76.9) 59 (71.1) < 0.001
 Malay 73 (7.0) 31 (13.8) 34 (45.9) 8 (9.6)
 Indian 69 (6.6) 29 (12.9) 32 (43.2) 8 (9.6)
 Others 68 (6.5) 30 (13.4) 30 (40.5) 8 (9.6)
FRAIL
 Robust 594 (56.7) 140 (62.5) 415 (56.1) 39 (47.0) 0.001
 Pre-frail 388 (37.1) 76 (33.9) 281 (38.0) 31 (37.3)
 Frail 65 (6.2) 8 (3.6) 44 (5.9) 13 (15.7)
≥ 1 IADL Impairment 427 40.8) 94 (42.0) 288 (38.9) 45 (54.2) 0.025
≥ 1 ADL Impairment 195 (18.6) 45 (20.1) 129 (17.4) 21 (25.3) 0.178
≥ 2 falls 96 (9.2) 23 (10.3) 65 (8.8) 8 (9.6) 0.787
Fatigued 265 (25.4) 43 (19.2)1 206 (27.8)1 16 (19.3) 0.015
Weight loss > 5% over 6 months 141 (13.5) 32 (14.3) 96 (13.0) 13 (15.7) 0.717
Smoking history 302 (28.8) 74 (33.0) 205 (27.7) 23 (27.7) 0.295
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD (standard deviation) or n (%). Abbreviations: MMSE Mini-mental state examination, EQ-VAS European Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, TUG Timed up and go, BMI Body mass index aAdjusted for education and age
  2. 1natural teeth vs denture-wearing, 2natural teeth vs edentulous, 3denture-wearing vs edentulous, p < 0.05