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Table 4 Logistic regression analysis of factors associated with the concurrent use of anticholinergics used to treat the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Parkinson’s disease patients with dementia

From: Prevalence and patterns of the concurrent use of anticholinergics for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Parkinson’s disease patients with dementia: a cross-sectional study using Korea National Health Insurance claims data

Variables No. of patients in the concurrent use group (%) Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) Logistic regression analysis results
Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)
Age, years
 65–69 113 (13.70) 1.649 (1.322–2.039) 1.344 (1.056–1.698)
 70–74 166 (10.70) 1.244 (1.034–1.490) 1.083 (0.889–1.314)
  ≥ 75 (ref) 568 (8.78) - -
Sex
 Male (ref) 279 (8.76) - -
 Female 568 (10.03) 1.161 (1.000–1.351) 1.019 (0.842–1.238)
National Health Security program enrolled
 NHI (ref) 711 (9.27) - -
 MA 135 (11.52) 1.274 (1.044–1.543) 1.130 (0.912–1.392)
 VA 1 (20.00) 2.447 (0.121–16.562) 1.526 (0.071–12.176)
Type of health care organization that the healthcare provider worked at
 Tertiary-care hospitals (ref) 98 (6.61) - -
 General hospitals 271 (11.29) 1.799 (1.419–2.298) 1.568 (1.221–2.028)
 Hospitals 151 (16.40) 2.772 (2.121–3.636) 2.135 (1.586–2.883)
 Long-term care facilities 104 (4.13) 0.609 (0.459–0.810) 0.720 (0.516–1.004)
 Clinics 216 (14.60) 2.417 (1.887–3.116) 1.541 (1.158–2.059)
 Others 7 (15.56) 2.603 (1.042–5.641) 3.147 (1.211–7.206)
Medical specialty of healthcare provider
 Neurology (ref) 314 (8.58) - -
 Internal medicine 102 (7.48) 0.862 (0.68–1.083) 0.862 (0.662–1.115)
 Psychiatry 276 (21.73) 2.958 (2.479–3.529) 1.898 (1.530–2.354)
 Surgery 21 (5.45) 0.615 (0.379–0.945) 0.897 (0.532–1.443)
 Orthopedics 8 (4.82) 0.539 (0.241–1.038) 0.602 (0.264–1.193)
 Neurosurgery 41 (9.65) 1.137 (0.797–1.583) 1.187 (0.823–1.674)
 Rehabilitation medicine 20 (4.17) 0.463 (0.283–0.716) 0.677 (0.405–1.072)
 Family medicine 39 (5.31) 0.598 (0.418–0.832) 0.923 (0.620–1.344)
 Others 26 (7.16) 0.822 (0.53–1.221) 0.805 (0.500–1.249)
Location of healthcare organization that the healthcare provider worked at
 Capital city area (ref) a 323 (8.89) - -
 Other regions 524 (10.06) 1.147 (0.992–1.327) 1.227 (1.046–1.441)
Comorbidity b
 Schizophrenia (F20) 167 (25.04) 3.683 (3.033–4.454) 2.342 (1.885–2.898)
 Abnormal results of kidney function studies (R944) 19 (20.88) 2.096 (1.215–3.424) 2.227 (1.233–3.827)
 Other specified forms of tremor (G252) 21 (18.26) 2.264 (1.308–3.713) 2.041 (1.135–3.493)
 Bipolar affective disorder (F31) 44 (14.72) 2.240 (1.924–2.604) 1.769 (1.495–2.089)
 Unspecified nonorganic psychosis (F29) 59 (23.51) 3.046 (2.236–4.086) 1.736 (1.246–2.389)
 Sequelae of other and unspecified cerebrovascular diseases (I698) 300 (16.02) 1.527 (1.066–2.132) 1.604 (1.097–2.290)
 Palpitations (R002) 38 (13.29) 1.915 (1.342–2.668) 1.521 (1.038–2.180)
 Tremor, unspecified (R251) 49 (16.61) 1.734 (1.403–2.128) 1.502 (1.195–1.876)
 Other specified postsurgical states (Z988) 39 (13.73) 1.522 (1.124–2.024) 1.460 (1.057–1.984)
 Cerebral infarction, unspecified (I639) 120 (14.72) 0.693 (0.566–0.843) 0.799 (0.645–0.984)
 Heart failure, unspecified (I509) 41 (16.53) 0.724 (0.549–0.938) 0.754 (0.562–0.995)
 Urinary tract infection, site not specified (N390) 55 (13.61) 0.754 (0.609–0.925) 0.740 (0.586–0.927)
 Hyperplasia of prostate without complication (N400) 89 (12.50) 0.739 (0.594–0.909) 0.699 (0.534–0.913)
 Unstable angina (I200) 123 (7.25) 0.561 (0.335–0.881) 0.516 (0.299–0.838)
 Cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of cerebral arteries (I633) 110 (7.68) 0.293 (0.104–0.643) 0.388 (0.136–0.868)
 Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (G912) 106 (7.55) 0.292 (0.089–0.694) 0.358 (0.108–0.871)
 Stroke, not specified as haemorrhage or infarction (I64) 78 (7.62) 0.317 (0.134–0.625) 0.345 (0.144–0.698)
 Chronic kidney disease, stage 3 (N183) 22 (6.43) 0.244 (0.060–0.647) 0.217 (0.051–0.614)
  1. n = 8,845 Parkinson’s disease patients with dementia
  2. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, NHI National Health Insurance, MA Medical Aid, VA Veterans Administration
  3. a Capital city area includes the capital city (i.e., Seoul) and its neighboring regions (i.e., Incheon and Gyeonggi)
  4. b Of the 37 comorbid conditions with significantly different prevalence between the concurrent and non-concurrent medication groups, only 18 conditions that were significantly associated with concurrent use from the multivariate analysis are listed. ICD-10th diagnosis codes are presented in parentheses