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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population of the preserved and reduced HGS groups by sex

From: The association of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercises with the handgrip strength of middle-aged and elderly Korean adults: a nationwide cross-sectional study

  Male ( n  = 5646) Female ( n  = 7168)
  Reduced HGS ( n  = 1688) Preserved HGS ( n  = 3958) p value Reduced HGS ( n  = 2032) Preserved HGS ( n  = 5136) p value
Age, years (mean ± SD) 68.0 ± 10.9 55.7 ± 10.1  < 0.001 67.3 ± 11.6 56.3 ± 10.5  < 0.001
Education level, n (%)     < 0.001     < 0.001
 Below middle school graduate 791 (50.3) 816 (21.8)   1302 (68.2) 1804 (36.4)  
 High school graduate 384 (24.4) 1307 (34.9)   337 (17.7) 1707 (34.4)  
 College graduate or higher 399 (25.4) 1619 (43.3)   269 (14.1) 1450 (29.2)  
Location of residence, n (%)     < 0.001     < 0.001
 Urban 1251 (74.1) 3172 (80.1)   1471 (72.4) 4228 (82.3)  
 Rural 437 (25.9) 786 (19.9)   561 (27.6) 908 (17.7)  
Living situation, n (%)     < 0.001     < 0.001
 Single 246 (14.6) 364 (9.2)   522 (25.7) 627 (12.2)  
 With family members 1442 (85.4) 3594 (90.8)   1510 (74.3) 4509 (87.8)  
Quartiles of income, n (%)     < 0.001     < 0.001
 1st (lowest) 503 (30.1) 864 (21.9)   569 (28.2) 1199 (23.4)  
 2nd 410 (24.5) 996 (25.2)   524 (26.0) 1269 (24.8)  
 3rd 380 (22.7) 1045 (26.5)   447 (22.1) 1321 (25.8)  
 4th (highest) 379 (22.7) 1044 (26.4)   479 (23.7) 1337 (26.1)  
BMI, kg/m2 (mean ± SD) 23.4 ± 3.1 24.7 ± 2.9  < 0.001 24.0 ± 3.6 24.0 ± 3.5 0.706
Smoking status, n (%)     < 0.001    0.154
 Never smoker 324 (19.5) 698 (17.8)   1842 (92.7) 4657 (91.3)  
 Ex-smoker 887 (53.5) 1867 (47.7)   73 (3.7) 220 (4.3)  
 Current smoker 448 (27.0) 1351 (34.5)   72 (3.6) 224 (4.4)  
Alcohol consumption (frequency), n (%)     < 0.001    0.008
  < 4/month 991 (64.6) 2186 (58.3)   1206 (90.3) 3734 (87.7)  
  ≥ 2/week 544 (35.4) 1564 (41.7)   129 (9.7) 526 (12.4)  
Nutritional status
 Energy intake (Kcal) 1899.8 ± 756.7 2309.0 ± 905.2  < 0.001 1432.0 ± 600.4 1641.5 ± 656.1  < 0.001
 Protein intake (g) 64.5 ± 33.3 82.7 ± 41.5  < 0.001 47.9 ± 26.0 58.9 ± 29.2  < 0.001
 Fat intake (g) 33.1 ± 26.6 48.6 ± 34.4  < 0.001 25.2 ± 21.5 35.2 ± 25.8  < 0.001
 Carbohydrate intake (g) 311.2 ± 117.1 344.2 ± 128.4  < 0.001 255.4 ± 105.8 272.0 ± 114.3  < 0.001
Comorbidities
 Hypertension, n (%) 778 (46.1) 1212 (30.6)  < 0.001 916 (45.2) 1319 (25.7)  < 0.001
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 352 (20.9) 837 (21.2) 0.825 643 (31.7) 1280 (24.9)  < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 368 (21.8) 464 (11.7)  < 0.001 379 (18.7) 453 (8.8)  < 0.001
  1. Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and categorical variables were expressed as numbers (percentages). p values were derived using the chi-square test or t-test. Reduced HGS was defined as HGS < 34.4 kg in men and HGS < 20.0 kg in women
  2. HGS handgrip strength, SD standard deviation