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Table 2 Characteristics of the participants based on different sleep quality (n = 231)

From: Evaluation of the correlation between frailty and sleep quality among elderly patients with osteoporosis: a cross-sectional study

Variables Nomal sleep quality A n(%) Poor sleep quanlity B n(%) X2 P
Gender    0.956 0.403
 Male 21 (24.1) 66 (75.9)   
 Female 27 (18.8) 117 (81.2)   
Age, y    14.056 0.001
 60–74 41 (27.0) 111 (73.0)   
 75–89 4 (5.7) 66 (94.3)   
  ≥ 90 3 (33.3) 6 (66.7)   
BMI(kg/m2)    17.794 0.000
 Low weight 3 (12.5) 21 (87.5)   
 Normal weight 16 (12.6) 111 (87.4)   
 Overweight/obesity 29 (36.2) 51 (63.8)   
Marital status    0.810 0.421
 Married 36 (19.6) 148 (80.4)   
 Unmarried or widowed 12 (25.5) 35 (74.5)   
Education    6.803 0.078
 Primary school and below 22 (28.6) 55 (71.4)   
 Junior school 8 (13.8) 50 (86.2)   
 High school 12 (24.5) 37 (75.5)   
 College and above 6 (12.8) 41 (87.2)   
Residence    4.438 0.109
 Alone/nursing home 6 (40.0) 9 (60.0)   
 Cohabitant spouse 15 (16.5) 76 (83.5)   
 Cohabitate with children 27 (21.6) 98 (78.4)   
Past occupation    9.507 0.002
 Manual labor 38 (27.5) 100 (72.5)   
 Mental labor 10 (10.8) 83 (89.2)   
Income    1.280 0.527
 Pension/Social security 29 (19.6) 119 (80.4)   
 Child support 15 (21.1) 56 (78.9)   
 Other 4 (33.3) 8 (66.7)   
Smoking history    0.982 0.395
 No 6 (15.0) 34 (85.0)   
 Yes 42 (22.0) 149 (78.0)   
Drinking history    0.982 0.395
 No 6 (15.0) 34 (85.0)   
 Yes 42 (22.0) 149 (78.0)   
History of fracture    0.473 0.606
 No 34 (22.1) 120 (77.9)   
 Yes 14 (18.2) 63 (81.8)   
Pain    14.014 0.001
 No 11 (52.4) 10 (47.6)   
 Yes 37 (17.6) 173 (82.4)   
Comorbidity    20.974 0.000
 No 32(36.4) 56(63.6)   
 Yes 16(11.2) 127(88.8)   
Polypharmacy    5.701 0.017
 No 44 (24.0) 139 (76.0)   
 Yes 4 (8.3) 44 (91.7)   
Participate in social activity    8.904 0.044
 No 16 (16.0) 84 (84.0)   
 1 to 2 times/year 23 (21.3) 85 (78.7)   
 1 to 2 times/month 5 (31.2) 11 (68.8)   
 1 to 2 times/week 4 (57.1) 3 (42.9)   
ADLs    29.594 0.000
 No impairment 33 (39.8) 50 (60.2)   
 Mild impairment 14 (12.0) 103 (88.0)   
 Moderate impairment 1 (5.0) 19 (95.0)   
 Severe impairment 0 (0.0) 11 (100.0)   
Frailty status    32.510 0.000
 Nonfrail 8 (47.0) 9 (53.0)   
 Prefrail 25 (40.3) 37 (59.7)   
 Frail 15 (9.9) 137 (90.1)   
  1. A: Normal sleep quality indicates PSQI ≤ 7; B: Poor sleep quality indicates PSQI > 7