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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of pre- and post-intervention groups

From: Impact of the Canadian CT head rule supplemented by the original published minimum inclusion criteria to assist emergency department clinicians’ assessment of patients presenting post fall from residential aged care: a retrospective audit

  2018 (Pre-intervention)
n = 233
2019 (Post-intervention)
n = 241
p-value
Age range 89 (85–92) 88 (84–93) 0.02
median (IQR)    
Gender n (%)    0.00
Female 134 (57.5%) 173 (71.8%)  
Male 99 (42.5%) 68 (28.2%)  
Medication total
median (IQR)
7 (4–11) 8 (5–11) 0.36
Medication missing n (%) 24 (10.3%) 23 (9.5%) 0.78
Cognitive impairment n (%) 151 (64.8%) 183 (75.9%) 0.01
Mobility prior to fall n (%)    0.02
Non-ambulant
Ambulant
Not documented
41 (17.6%)
176 (75.5%)
16 (6.9%)
24 (10.0%)
210 (87.1%)
7 (2.9%)
 
FRAT risk n (%)    0.00
High risk
Not documented
191 (82.0%)
42 (18.0%)
224 (93.0%)
17 (7.0%)
 
Anticoagulation n (%)    0.66
Anticoagulation
No anticoagulation
Not documented
108 (46.4%)
117 (50.2%)
8 (3.4%)
103 (42.7%)
131 (54.4%)
7 (2.9%)
 
Type of anticoagulation n (%)    0.00
Antiplatelet
DAPT
Warfarin
DOAC
Antiplatelet + warfarin
DAPT + DOAC or warfarin
64 (27.5%)
1 (0.4%)
17 (7.3%)
18 (7.7%)
5 (2.1%)
0 (0.0%)
48 (19.9%)
7 (2.9%)
12 (5.0%)
33 (13.7%)
0 (0%)
0 (0%)
 
LMWH
Antiplatelet + LMWH
Antiplatelet + DOAC
0 (0%)
2 (0.9%)
1 (0.4%)
0 (0%)
0 (0%)
3 (1.2%)
 
Witnessed fall n (%)    0.13
Witnessed
Not documented
21 (9.0%)
15 (6.4%)
26 (10.8%)
27 (11.2%)
 
Headstrike* n (%)    0.75
Headstrike
Not documented
110 (47.2%)
78 (33.5%)
118 (49.0%)
73 (30.3%)
 
Head injury** n (%)    0.02
Head injury
Not documented
86 (37.0%)
89 (38.2%)
105 (43.6%)
63 (26.1%)
 
Late presentation n (%) *** 1 (0.4%) 0 (0%) 0.49
LOC n (%)    0.33
LOC
Not documented
2 (0.9%)
121 (52.0%)
6 (2.5%)
129 (53.5%)
 
Headache n (%)    0.87
Headache
Not documented
14 (6.0%)
167 (71.7%)
15 (6.2%)
177 (73.4%)
 
Vomiting n (%)    0.08
Vomiting
Not documented
10 (4.3%)
191 (82.0%)
9 (3.7%)
180 (74.7%)
 
Neurological deficits n (%) 4 (1.7%) 5 (2.1%) 0.78
Change in GCS n (%)    0.19
Change in GCS
No change in GCS
Not documented
23 (9.9%)
160 (68.7%)
50 (21.5%)
23 (9.5%)
149 (61.8%)
69 (28.6%)
 
GCS in ED n (%)    0.45
Not documented
< 13
≥13
6 (2.6%)
27 (11.5%)
200 (85.8%)
2 (0.8%)
18 (7.4%)
221 (91.7%)
 
  1. FRAT Falls Risk Assessment Tool, DAPT Dual antiplatelet therapy, DOAC Direct oral anticoagulant, LMWH Low molecular weight heparin, LOC Loss of consciousness, GCS Glasgow Coma Score
  2. * ‘Headstrike’: confirmation that the patient actually hit their head when they fell
  3. ** ‘Head injury’: documentation of a visible injury (e.g., bruising or a laceration) associated with a headstrike
  4. *** ‘Late presentation’: patients who presented with an intracranial haemorrhage following a time lag from their initial fall injury. This was captured by reviewing 2 weeks of medical records prior to the index presentation to determine if there had been any previous fall injury