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Table 1 Summary of Subgroup Analyses of Polypharmacy Prevalence

From: Prevalence and factors associated with polypharmacy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroup Pooled Prevalence
(95% CI)
Chi2 df p-value
Mean age of participants 36 (29,43) 10.88 1 < 0.01
<  65 years 25 (16,35) 238,592.68 20 < 0.0001
≥ 65 years 45 (37,54) 4,378,199.84 25 < 0.0001
Sex 32 (26,39) 0.04 1 0. 85
Male 32 (22,41) 1,484,546.49 21 < 0.0001
Female 33 (23,43) 1,754,816.42 21 < 0.0001
Health care setting 40 (32,49) 13.55 2 < 0.01
Inpatient 52 (38,66) 36,809.71 10 < 0.0001
Outpatient 47 (33,62) 910,219.51 12 < 0.0001
Community 20 (6,35) 12,462,667.1 10 < 0.0001
Numerical cut off for medications 32 (26,38) 7.90 1 < 0.01
≥ 2 medications 22 (10,35) 22,184,826.88 9 < 0.0001
≥ 5 medications 40 (0, 47) 16,672,729.06 43 < 0.0001
Measurement indicator 33 (28,38) 0.01 2 P = 0.91
Simultaneous 33 (27,40) 9,353,584.02 50 < 0.0001
Cumulative 33 (25,41) 12,926,693.67 37 < 0.0001
Methodological quality 33 (28,38) 0.37 1 0.54
High quality 34 (29.39) 21,220,449.4 83 < 0.0001
Low quality 27 (0,57) 5005.5 4 < 0.0001
Country of publication 37 (31,44) 2.19 2 0.33
North America 51 (24,79) 30372.7 4 < 0.0001
Asia 36 (24,48) 377564.9 11 < 0.0001
Europe 36 (27,44) 20277561.9 33 <0.001
Study design 33 (28,38) 9.93 2 0.31
Cross-sectional 37 (31,43) 20,427,507.22 63 < 0.0001
Cohort 23 (9,38) 326,083.41 11 < 0.0001
Case-control 24 (17,31) 365,802.26 12 < 0.0001
  1. Chi2 = Chi-squared; df = degrees of freedom; Number of reports exceeding the total number of included studies indicates that some studies contributed more raw data at different study periods, age groups or etc.