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Table 2 Validation of the Kihon Checklist, frailty screening index, and self-reported health against frailty defined by the J-CHS criteria according to the Fried phenotype model

From: Validation of the Kihon Checklist and the frailty screening index for frailty defined by the phenotype model in older Japanese adults

  J-CHS criteria Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV LR +  LR- AUC ROC (95% CI)
Frailty Non-frailty Crude Bootstrap
KCL
Total (n = 1306)
  Frailty, n 112 (8.6) 233 (17.8) 76.2 79.9 32.5 96.4 3.8 0.3 0.861 (0.832–0.889) 0.840 (0.808–0.871)
  Non-frailty, n 35 (2.7) 926 (70.9)           
Women (n = 656)
  Frailty, n 59 (9.0) 110 (16.8) 73.8 80.9 34.9 95.7 3.9 0.3 0.851 (0.809–0.892) 0.831 (0.784–0.879)
  Non-frailty, n 21 (3.2) 466 (71.0)           
Men (n = 650)
  Frailty, n 53 (8.2) 123 (18.9) 79.1 78.9 30.1 97.0 3.7 0.3 0.875 (0.839–0.911) 0.856 (0.815–0.898)
  Non-frailty, n 14 (2.1) 460 (70.8)           
FSI
Total (n = 1306)
  Frailty, n 129 (9.9) 321 (24.5) 87.8 72.3 28.7 97.9 3.2 0.2 0.860 (0.831–0.889) 0.780 (0.728–0.833)
  Non-frailty, n 18 (1.4) 838 (64.2)           
Women (n = 656)
  Frailty, n 68 (10.4) 170 (25.9) 85.0 70.5 28.6 97.1 2.9 0.2 0.837 (0.796–0.879) 0.752 (0.695–0.810)
  Non-frailty, n 12 (1.8) 406 (61.9)           
Men (n = 650)
  Frailty, n 61 (9.4) 151 (23.2) 91.0 74.1 28.8 98.6 3.5 0.1 0.885 (0.846–0.925) 0.848 (0.791–0.904)
  Non-frailty, n 6 (0.9) 432 (66.5)           
Self-reported health
Total (n = 1306)
  Frailty, n 54 (4.2) 110 (8.4) 36.7 90.5 32.9 91.9 3.9 0.7 0.668 (0.629–0.707) 0.405 (0.336–0.473)
  Non-frailty, n 93 (7.1) 1,049 (80.3)           
Women (n = 656)
  Frailty, n 27 (4.1) 50 (7.6) 33.8 91.3 35.1 90.8 3.9 0.7 0.665 (0.616–0.714) 0.407 (0.311–0.504)
  Non-frailty, n 53 (8.1) 526 (80.2)           
Men (n = 650)
  Frailty, n 27 (4.2) 60 (9.2) 40.3 89.7 31.0 92.9 3.9 0.7 0.672 (0.610–0.734) 0.430 (0.335–0.526)
  Non-frailty, n 40 (6.1) 523 (80.5)           
  1. AUC ROC area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, CI Confidence interval, FSI Frailty screening index, revised J-CHS criteria the revised Japanese version of the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria, KCL Kihon Checklist, LR +  positive likelihood ratio, LR −  negative likelihood ratio, NPV negative predictive value, PPV positive predictive value
  2. The cut-off scores for diagnosing frailty is 7 points in the KCL, 2 points in FSI, and “not very healthy” or worse in self-reported health