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Table 1 Characteristics of the Kyoto-Kameoka Study participants according to sexa

From: Validation of the Kihon Checklist and the frailty screening index for frailty defined by the phenotype model in older Japanese adults

  Total (n = 1306) Women (n = 656) Men (n = 650)
Age (years) b 72.8 (5.5) 72.5 (5.2) 73.1 (5.8)
PD ≥ 1000 people/km2 (n [%]) c 528 (40.4) 254 (38.7) 274 (42.2)
Body mass index (kg/m2) b 22.6 (3.3) 22.3 (3.5) 22.9 (3.1)
Living alone (n [%]) c 137 (10.5) 101 (15.4) 36 (5.5)
HSES (n [%]) c 488 (37.4) 244 (37.2) 244 (37.5)
Education ≥ 13 y (n [%]) c 326 (25.0) 124 (18.9) 202 (31.1)
Current smoker (n [%]) c 104 (8.0) 14 (2.1) 90 (13.9)
Alcohol drinker (n [%]) c 904 (69.2) 337 (51.4) 567 (87.2)
No medication (n [%]) c 275 (21.1) 130 (19.8) 145 (22.3)
Hypertension (n [%]) c 511 (39.1) 260 (39.6) 251 (38.6)
Stroke (n [%]) c 36 (2.8) 12 (1.8) 24 (3.7)
Heart disease (n [%]) c 144 (11.0) 45 (6.9) 99 (15.2)
Diabetes (n [%]) c 118 (9.0) 46 (7.0) 72 (11.1)
Hyperlipidaemia (n [%]) c 152 (11.6) 97 (14.8) 55 (8.5)
KCL score b 4.5 (3.7) 4.4 (3.7) 4.6 (3.7)
FSI score b 1.2 (1.0) 1.2 (1.0) 1.2 (1.0)
Poor self-reported health (n [%]) c,d 164 (12.6) 77 (11.7) 87 (13.4)
Grip strength (kg) b 27.7 (8.1) 33.9 (3.9) 21.5 (6.2)
Gait speed (m/s) b 1.25 (0.22) 1.26 (0.21) 1.25 (0.22)
J-CHS Frailty (n [%]) c 147 (11.3) 80 (12.2) 67 (10.3)
  1. FSI Frailty screening index, HSES High socioeconomic status, J-CHS Japanese version of the Cardiovascular Health Study, KCL Kihon Checklist, PD Population density
  2. a Data for participants with missing values were imputed by multiple imputation: family structure (n = 67, 5.1%), socioeconomic status (n = 56, 4.3%), education (n = 116, 8.9%), smoking status (n = 7, 0.5%), alcohol status (n = 3, 0.2%), and medications (n = 12, 0.9%)
  3. b Continuous variables are presented as mean and standard deviation
  4. c Category variables are presented as the number of cases and percentage
  5. d Self-reported health (“very healthy” or “somewhat healthy” = good self-reported health, and “not very healthy” or “unhealthy” = poor self-reported health)